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17. 0 Energy Transmission http: //www. tesla-coil. info/ Frank R. Leslie, B. S. E. 17. 0 Energy Transmission http: //www. tesla-coil. info/ Frank R. Leslie, B. S. E. E. , M. S. Space Technology, LS IEEE 3/26/2010, Rev. 2. 0 fleslie @fit. edu; (321) 674 -7377 www. fit. edu/~fleslie

In Other News. . . l Sempra Units To Spend $10. 6 Billion Over In Other News. . . l Sempra Units To Spend $10. 6 Billion Over 5 Yrs On Transmission, Renewables l SAN FRANCISCO -(Dow Jones)- Sempra Energy's (SRE) two utilities plan to spend about $10. 6 billion--about two-thirds of the company's total capital expense budget--on capital projects over the next five years on transmission, renewable energy, advanced meters and other projects, company executives said Thursday. l San Diego Gas & Electric plans to spend about $7 billion of the total, including $2 billion on a 120 -mile high-voltage transmission line, called Sunrise Powerlink; $400 million to buy two wind farms and a 14 -megawatt solar farm; $500 million to install digital utility meters; $400 million to build two new substations; $165 million for a rooftop solar program; and $75 million installing electric-vehicle charging infrastructure throughout its service territory, said Debra Reed, president and chief executive of Sempra Utilities. http: //www. nasdaq. com/aspx/stock-market-newsstory. aspx? storyid=201003251638 dowjonesdjonline 000787&title=sempra-units-to-spend-106 -billion-over-5 -yrs-on -transmissionrenewables 100326

17 Overview: Energy Transmission l Energy sources are usually in different locations than a 17 Overview: Energy Transmission l Energy sources are usually in different locations than a city or load center (with the exception of hydropower) l Transmission of electrical energy requires transformation to a high voltage and low current so that the resistance losses of the cable do not dissipate excessive energy (usually about 3 to 5% by design) l Chemical or fuel energy is conducted through pipelines, and like wire, the larger the diameter, the lower the loss l Similar to electricity, pipeline contents are pressurized to overcome losses, and at the load end, the pressure is reduced to a useful level u. For gases, the line acts as a storage tank, too 090331

17. 0 About This Presentation l l l l l 090331 17. 2 17. 17. 0 About This Presentation l l l l l 090331 17. 2 17. 3 17. 4 17. 5 17. 6 17. 7 History Carriers of Energy Electric Transmission Lines Pipelines Hydrogen --- An Energy Carrier Transmission by Radiation NIMBYs 17. 8 Energy Distribution 17. 0 Conclusion

17 Energy Transmission l Electricity and hydrogen are energy carriers, not natural fuels l 17 Energy Transmission l Electricity and hydrogen are energy carriers, not natural fuels l Electric transmission lines lose energy in heat (~3 to 5% as engineering design parameter) l Line directional energy-flow analysis can show where new energy plants are required, usually close to a load center (NIMBYs may not want them there) l Hydrogen is made by cracking of natural gas, electrolysis of water, coal pyrolysis, or from bacterial action (prototype level now) l Pipelines can transport hydrogen without appreciable energy loss, but H 2 leaks through standard pipe readily 080331

17. 1 The Early Days: Electricity l Edison’s Pearl Street Plant generated electricity for 17. 1 The Early Days: Electricity l Edison’s Pearl Street Plant generated electricity for nearby financial office buildings some six blocks away l By 1930, nearly all cities and towns had electricity in homes, but only 10% of farms had electricity l Small gasoline or kerosene-powered 32 V generators were common on farms (DELCO, for example); Dayton Electric Light Co. , now Delphi l The 1935 Rural Electrification Act brought extensions of powerlines to more distant areas to bring the US out of the “Great Depression” under President Roosevelt u. Rural cooperative associations funded the program and sold power to the customers l By 1955, nearly all farms and ranches had utility electricity to main buildings near the road 090331

17. 1. 2 The Early Days: Pipelines l In 1821, the village of Fredonia 17. 1. 2 The Early Days: Pipelines l In 1821, the village of Fredonia NY laid lead pipes to provide natural gas to 100 street lights l In 1870, a company bored holes in logs and banded them together to make a gas pipeline to Rochester, New York l In 1886, a wrought iron pipeline was installed to carry gas to Buffalo NY l In 1903, Sheehan laid oil pipelines in Indian Territory l The Alyeska pipeline opened in the late 1970 s, bring North Slope oil to the CONUS (contiguous United States) by ship from Valdez, Alaska to lower US ports and overseas u This 48 -inch insulated pipeline is substantially above ground to keep the permafrost from melting u The line was charged with oil in June 20, 1977 u Harris Corp. of Palm Bay did the telemetry and control system! 080331

17. 2 Carriers of Energy l Electricity is a carrier of energy that is 17. 2 Carriers of Energy l Electricity is a carrier of energy that is transformed from a different source of energy u. Atmospheric energy, like lightning or hurricane, is not practical to capture and distribute for use l A very different chemical energy is also a carrier – hydrogen u. Hydrogen is burned as a fuel (but isn’t a fuel), yet it is strongly bonded to other atoms in nature u. Hydrogen must be made from other substances, requiring even more energy to break the bond u. A gas, hydrogen is very energy-diffuse unless highly compressed, which takes still more energy 090331

17. 3 Electrical Transmission Lines l The “Grid” is the interconnected network of long-haul, 17. 3 Electrical Transmission Lines l The “Grid” is the interconnected network of long-haul, high-voltage electrical transmission lines l The grid is the largest human-built machine l There are three main organizational control sections u. The Eastern grid from the Rockies to the East Coast and into Canada u. The Texas grid (in the 1930 s, Texas didn’t want to lose control to the Federal government) u. The Western grid from the Rockies to the Pacific and from Mexico to Canada l The entire grid is interconnected now; originally, it was difficult to connect through the Rocky Mountain passes 080331

17. 3 The US Grid (Interconnect) Territories l Three primary regions comprise the Grid 17. 3 The US Grid (Interconnect) Territories l Three primary regions comprise the Grid l They are interlocked to precisely 60 hertz (cycles per second) frequency to control the current flow direction 070329

17. 3. 1 Transmission Line Operation l A very simplified example: A 1000 MW 17. 3. 1 Transmission Line Operation l A very simplified example: A 1000 MW power plant has its output voltage transformed upwards at negligible loss and power sent out over a 100 k. V transmission line u. The line current is P/V = 1000 MW/100 k. V = 10 k. A u. Suppose the lines are two large copper or aluminum cables sized to lose only 2% of the energy u. The loss in the line was 20 MW, dissipated in heat u. At the load end, the received energy is 980 MW u. The current remains 10 k. A, but the voltage falls along the cable length u. The voltage drop is then 20 MW/10 k. A = 2 k. V u. The received voltage is now 100 k. V – 2 k. V = 98 k. V 080331

17. 3. 1 Transformers http: //www. emcoindia. com/Images/132 kvpowertrans. jpg http: //www. epri. com/journal/images/486_transformer_2 17. 3. 1 Transformers http: //www. emcoindia. com/Images/132 kvpowertrans. jpg http: //www. epri. com/journal/images/486_transformer_2 r. jpg l The higher the voltage, the longer the insulators 030323 http: //philip. greenspun. com/ Philip Greenspun

17. 3 Transformer Operation l A very simplified example: A power plant might have 17. 3 Transformer Operation l A very simplified example: A power plant might have an output voltage of 10 k. V transformed to a higher voltage of 100 k. V for transmission l A coil of heavy wire or copper tubing known as the primary (input) winding is wound around a magnetic core of laminated steel strips l Ten times as many turns of somewhat smaller wire (the secondary) are also wound around the core l The magnetic flux produced by the primary winding is coupled to the secondary winding by the steel core field l Since there are ten times as many turns in the secondary, the output voltage is ten times the input voltage l Except for losses (~2% in a large unit), the output power is ~ the input power, so the output current is 1/10 the input current l The transformer is filled with oil around the windings in order to carry off the dissipated heat, and fans air-cool the oil pipes 090331

17. 4 Pipelines l Pipelines require massive earth-moving projects to lay pipe l In 17. 4 Pipelines l Pipelines require massive earth-moving projects to lay pipe l In some areas, access is through a legal easement on private property, whose owners sometimes claim they didn’t know about it when they bought the property l Iceland will produce electrolyzed hydrogen from electricity from sustainable hydro and geothermal plants u. The hydrogen can then be distributed by pipeline u. The pipeline requires better sealing than for oil u. There is an excess of available energy in Iceland, so electrolysis inefficiency doesn’t matter so much u. They run three H 2 propelled buses 090331

17. 4 The Alaska Pipeline l The North Slope oil fields near Deadhorse, Alaska 17. 4 The Alaska Pipeline l The North Slope oil fields near Deadhorse, Alaska could be exploited when the Alyeska Pipeline was built l On a local note, the original telemetry and control system was designed and built by Harris Corporation http: //www. solcomhouse. com/ 080331 http: //www. tapsrow. com/

17. 4. 1 The Alaska Pipeline l The 800 -mile “pipe” is paralleled by 17. 4. 1 The Alaska Pipeline l The 800 -mile “pipe” is paralleled by the gravel haul road from Fairbanks to Prudhoe Bay at the Arctic Ocean l 731, 654 barrels per day average transport 090331 http: //www. alyeska-pipe. com/Default. asp

17. 5 The Hydrogen Economy: Will it ever arrive? l The “Hydrogen Economy” was 17. 5 The Hydrogen Economy: Will it ever arrive? l The “Hydrogen Economy” was formulated by Amory Lovins of the Rocky Mountain Institute at Snowmass CO l In this concept, clean hydrogen replaces fossil fuels, not fouling the air and water where used l Where will we get that much hydrogen? Solar and wind systems are advocated, but what if economics drives the use of coal, oil shale, or tar sands to make the hydrogen? l While hydrogen-fueled cars have been given to two California cities for testing, the important aspect is that the manufacturers are providing the hydrogen for free l If you can’t get it for free, how much would you be willing to pay for it? 40 times gasoline cost? 090331

17. 5. 1 Proton-Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell 030329 http: //www 2. shell. com/home/hydrogen-en/downloads/Shell%20 17. 5. 1 Proton-Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell 030329 http: //www 2. shell. com/home/hydrogen-en/downloads/Shell%20 Hydrogen%20 brochure. pdf

17. 5. 2 HERA Hydrogen storage Tank Five kg of hydrogen could power an 17. 5. 2 HERA Hydrogen storage Tank Five kg of hydrogen could power an automobile for 800 km (500 miles) and be loaded in two minutes in a metal-hydride storage tank 070329 http: //www 2. shell. com/

17. 5. 2 Shell Oil continues its vision “The passing age” will now be 17. 5. 2 Shell Oil continues its vision “The passing age” will now be petroleum; the coming age is likely of hydrogen 070329 http: //www 2. shell. com/

17. 5. 3 Shell Oil’s CO 2 Research l Shell Oil is researching the 17. 5. 3 Shell Oil’s CO 2 Research l Shell Oil is researching the sequestering of CO 2 to prevent its escape into the atmosphere u This means capturing it chemically or injecting it into the earth l A pipeline system to collect industrial CO 2 and conduct it to a sequestration facility may be in the future l A coal plant in North Dakota sends CO 2 to Alberta Canada to pressurize oil fields 070329

17. 6 Transmission by Radiation l Light energy sent by fiberoptics can currently transmit 17. 6 Transmission by Radiation l Light energy sent by fiberoptics can currently transmit enough power to operate very low power communication devices l Future power levels might supply higher powers, but conduction of enough light power to drive home appliances seems difficult to do l Nikola Tesla, who invented the alternating current polyphase power system, experimented with radio frequency transmission of power near Colorado Springs CO 070329

17. 6. 1 Nikola Tesla’s Experiments l Prints are available from the reference 030331 17. 6. 1 Nikola Tesla’s Experiments l Prints are available from the reference 030331 http: //www. teslascience. org/archive. htm

17. 6. 1. 1 Musical Tesla Coil Singing Tesla Coil This is a twin 17. 6. 1. 1 Musical Tesla Coil Singing Tesla Coil This is a twin Tesla coil playing a compilation of MIDI tunes. You can see how it was built at http: //cappers-lab. dyndns. org/midisch. . . http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Bi. Ulqec. QKUo http: //static 1. videosift. com/thumbs/t/es/Tesla_Coil_Music. jpg l Wow! 080331 http: //www. hackedgadgets. com/2006/06/30/tesla-coil-music/

17. 6. 2 Microwave-Beamed Energy l Microwave energy could be beamed from satellites that 17. 6. 2 Microwave-Beamed Energy l Microwave energy could be beamed from satellites that collect solar energy to earth antennas u A low-power radio beacon at the earth antenna would be tracked to turn on the earthbound power; loss of signal would shut the power off l There are potential technical problems, and the cost would be extremely high l On earth, the rectified antenna energy would have to be converted to supply existing power lines l There’s also a plan to put solar arrays on the moon to beam energy to earth --- $1000 a watt? ? ? 090331

17. 7 Protests and Rights of Way: NIMBYs Attack! l Rights of way for 17. 7 Protests and Rights of Way: NIMBYs Attack! l Rights of way for pipelines and electrical transmission lines stir shrill opposition to the change u. Those along the route will shriek that their view (or “viewscape”) will be ruined, and they wouldn’t have built their house there if they had been told that the woods they don’t own might be cut someday u. Others are convinced that radiation of “EMFs” will cause cancer, stunt their children's growth, cause their cows to stop giving milk, etc. u. Still others will try to invoke the Endangered Species Act because some plant or critter will harmed n In some cases, people have transplanted endangered plant species to “discover” later 090331

17. 8 Energy Distribution l Under energy system reorganizations, there will be three major 17. 8 Energy Distribution l Under energy system reorganizations, there will be three major components (California has this in operation) u. Generation – the source of energy n. Large plants become merchant plants through transfer of ownership to a new company u. Transmission – the transfer of energy n. A regional Independent System Operator (ISO) like CAISO operates all transmission lines in a state or larger area u. Distribution – the retail provision of energy n. The local distribution and metering for sale brings energy to each user (looks the same as today) 070329

17. 8 Energy Distribution l This Palm Bay FL substation on Lipscomb St. reduces 17. 8 Energy Distribution l This Palm Bay FL substation on Lipscomb St. reduces voltage for distribution to residences and industry 080331

17. 8. 1 Energy Distribution l This Clearmont St. substation in Palm Bay provides 17. 8. 1 Energy Distribution l This Clearmont St. substation in Palm Bay provides switching and transformation 090331

17. 8. 2 Energy Distribution to Houses Black Wire twwphotos. com Red Wire www. 17. 8. 2 Energy Distribution to Houses Black Wire twwphotos. com Red Wire www. howstuffworks. com/ power 6. htm l This transformer reduces the 7, 200 volt distribution high line voltage to center-tapped 240 V for home use 090331

17. 8. 3 Buried Transmission Cables l Some call for buried lines to protect 17. 8. 3 Buried Transmission Cables l Some call for buried lines to protect them from storms l Costs vary, but are high l 80% of Captiva Island, Florida residents want buried lines (and have the money to pay for it) l “Overhead lines average $120, 000 per mile, and buried lines are three to ten times as much” [Florida Today, 3/28/2005, “Residents ready to buy lines”, Wendy Fullerton] l When an underground failure (fault) occurs, it is expensive to find and repair it u Outages last longer 080331

17 Conclusion: Energy Transmission l Installation of new power lines and pipelines may be 17 Conclusion: Energy Transmission l Installation of new power lines and pipelines may be met with opposition by NIMBYs and CAVEs l Doubling of conductors on an existing line doubles the possible current flow and is not met with vocal opposition l The “Hydrogen Economy” will require hydrogen-grade low-leakage pipelines or tanks to bring the tenuous gas from wherever it is made to the sales points u. The only alternative is to carry the hydrogen in tank trucks in groups of pipes or tanks u. Direct radiation of electrical power is unlikely and would cause massive radio interference 090331 Ref. : Air Products

Olin Engineering Complex 4. 7 k. W Solar PV Roof Array Questions? 080116 Olin Engineering Complex 4. 7 k. W Solar PV Roof Array Questions? 080116

References: Books l Boyle, Godfrey. Renewable Energy, Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004, References: Books l Boyle, Godfrey. Renewable Energy, Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004, ISBN 0 -19 -26178 -4. (my preferred text) l Brower, Michael. Cool Energy. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press, 1992. 0 -262 -02349 -0, TJ 807. 9. U 6 B 76, 333. 79’ 4’ 0973. l Duffie, John and William A. Beckman. Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. , 920 pp. , 1991 l Gipe, Paul. Wind Energy for Home & Business. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Pub. Co. , 1993. 0 -930031 -64 -4, TJ 820. G 57, 621. 4’ 5 l Patel, Mukund R. Wind and Solar Power Systems. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1999, 351 pp. ISBN 0 -8493 -1605 -7, TK 1541. P 38 1999, 621. 31’ 2136 l Sørensen, Bent. Renewable Energy, Second Edition. San Diego: Academic Press, 2000, 911 pp. ISBN 0 -12 -656152 -4. l Texter, [MIT] 030319

References: Websites, etc. http: //www. shell. ca/main. html http: //www 2. shell. com/home/Framework? site. References: Websites, etc. http: //www. shell. ca/main. html http: //www 2. shell. com/home/Framework? site. Id=hydrogen-en http: //www. msnbc. com/news/520385. asp http: //www. teslascience. org/pages/webring. htm http: //www. alyeska-pipe. com/Default. asp _____________________________________ [email protected] com. Wind Energy elist [email protected] com. Wind energy home powersite elist rredc. nrel. gov/wind/pubs/atlas/maps/chap 2/2 -01 m. html PNNL wind energy map of CONUS [email protected] com. Elist for wind energy experimenters www. dieoff. org. Site devoted to the decline of energy and effects upon population www. ferc. gov/ Federal Energy Regulatory Commission www. hawaii. gov/dbedt/ert/otec_hi. html#anchor 349152 on OTEC systems telosnet. com/wind/20 th. html www. google. com/search? q=%22 renewable+energy+course%22 solstice. crest. org/ dataweb. usbr. gov/html/powerplant_selection. html 080331

Notes The unit will feed hydrogen gas easily into the school's metal hydride storage Notes The unit will feed hydrogen gas easily into the school's metal hydride storage tank which stores the hydrogen in a solid hydride form. The metal hydride storage system stores hydrogen safely and efficiently at low pressure so that it can be converted back into gaseous hydrogen - with the use of a heat exchanger - when needed for engine fuel. 030318

In Other News. . . l “Public meetings to discuss about 70 miles of In Other News. . . l “Public meetings to discuss about 70 miles of huge new power transmission lines through Shasta County will be held tonight in Burney, Monday in Chico and April 13 in Redding. l The plan is part of a $1. 5 billion, 600 -mile transmission line project stretching from Lassen County near the Nevada border and south through the Central Valley. It would split west to the San Francisco Bay area and east to the Sierra foothills, ending in Santa Clara and Stanislaus counties. A new substation is proposed near Round Mountain in Shasta County, shown on a map of the project on the Western Area Power Administration's Web site. “ --- Redding [CA]. com 3/31/09 090331