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11. Public Relations Richard E. Caplan The University of Akron Christopher Burnett California State, 11. Public Relations Richard E. Caplan The University of Akron Christopher Burnett California State, Long Beach

Public Relations • Classic definition of public relations – Creating an understanding for, or Public Relations • Classic definition of public relations – Creating an understanding for, or goodwill towards, a company, a person or a product • Public Relations in Ancient Times – Feature of government – Statues, coins and stamps • Today’s public relations – Product of journalism – Early 20 th century

Corporate Public Relations • The Publicity Bureau – 1 st publicity firm – Boston Corporate Public Relations • The Publicity Bureau – 1 st publicity firm – Boston 1900 – Railroads opposing regulation • Ivy Lee & George F. Parker – New York firm – Lee, former journalist – Represented coal industry • Against workers

Lee’s Declaration of Principles • Lee’s Declaration of Principles 1906 – Work done in Lee’s Declaration of Principles • Lee’s Declaration of Principles 1906 – Work done in the open – Supply news about businesses and public institutions – Honest and accurate • Most famous clients – Pennsylvania Railroad – John D. Rockefeller • Counterbalance to Ida Tarbell and bad press

Corporate Public Relations • Lee’s model of Corporate PR – In-house PR dept. • Corporate Public Relations • Lee’s model of Corporate PR – In-house PR dept. • Growth of of in-house PR – Corporate • American Telephone & Telegraph • Chicago Edison – Non-profits, 1904 -05 • University of Wisconsin • University of Pennsylvania • Washington, D. C. YMCA – fundraising

Government Public Relations • Committee on Public Information – World War I – George Government Public Relations • Committee on Public Information – World War I – George Creel • Recruited journalists • Edward L. Bernays – Blurred line between propaganda and publicity – Raised money for Liberty Bonds • Promoted war effort • Roosevelt administration – Promoted the New Deal • Office of War Information – World War II • Led by newscaster Elmer Davis

Edward L. Bernays • Wrote the first books on public relations – Crystallization of Edward L. Bernays • Wrote the first books on public relations – Crystallization of Public Opinion - 1923 • Taught the first course on public relations • Interest in mass psychology Bettmann/Corbis – How to influence large groups of people • Impressive list of clients – Procter & Gamble – General Motors – American Tobacco Company Bernays • Wrote in 1955 – Public relations “is the attempt, by information, persuasion, and adjustment, to engineer public support for an activity, cause, movement or institution. ”

Women in Public Relations • Doris Fleischman – Bernays’ wife – Equal PR partner, Women in Public Relations • Doris Fleischman – Bernays’ wife – Equal PR partner, 1931 Sam Mc. Kenna/Corbis outline • Leone Baxter – Baxter & Whitaker, San Francisco – Political PR Fleischmann • Anne Williams Wheaton – Eisenhower’s associate press secretary, 1957

Development of an Ethics Code • 1930 s press agents – Phony stories • Development of an Ethics Code • 1930 s press agents – Phony stories • Rita Hayworth & “best-dressed contest” of 1939 • Byoir & Associates, 1961 – Anti-trucking “front” organizations • Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) – Established 1 st Code of Ethics in 1954 – Declaration of Principles, 1959 – Voluntary guidelines

Financial Public Relations • Information for business reporters – – – Access to management Financial Public Relations • Information for business reporters – – – Access to management Knowledge of the company Rapid information Ethical and honest News rather than “fluff” • “Bad” financial PR – “none of the public’s business” – Can’t answer questions – Outside PR firms – “No comment” PR – No help The New Yorker Collection 1999 Jack Ziegler from cartoonbank. com

Product Public Relations • Selling through PR, rather than advertising • Coleco Industries, Inc. Product Public Relations • Selling through PR, rather than advertising • Coleco Industries, Inc. – Cabbage Patch Dolls, 1983 – Press parties, etc. – $500, 000 PR (a bargain) • Wieden & Kennedy AP/Wide World Photos – Tennis shoes – 2. 5 story shoe – Placement at Boston Marathon and March of Dimes – Worlwide news coverage

Crisis Public Relations • Responding to negativity • Johnson & Johnson • Odwalla, Inc. Crisis Public Relations • Responding to negativity • Johnson & Johnson • Odwalla, Inc. – Apple juice e. coli, 1996 – Rapid adjustments • Utah Mine Disaster – Need to stay visible AP/Wide World Photo – Tylenol poison tampering, 1982 – Product recalls – Cost $100 million – Televised, 30 -city press conference Stephen Williamson, Odwalla CEO

Business of Public Relations • In the United States – – – 161, 000 Business of Public Relations • In the United States – – – 161, 000 employees 4, 000 firms Largest with 1000 -plus employees Several with 100 to 400 PR people Most have 4 or fewer employees • Public relations & ad agencies – J. Walter Thompson (ad agency) bought Hill & Knowlton (PR) – WPP Group PLC bought J. Walter Thompson – Ad agencies sell products – PR involved in company policy making • PR Careers © 2004 NBAE Andrew D. Bernstein/NBAE/Getty Images

Types of Clients • Government – Public information – Largest employer of PR people Types of Clients • Government – Public information – Largest employer of PR people – Political candidates and lobbyists • Education Library of Congress – Colleges, universities and school districts • Nonprofits – Hospitals, churches, museums. charities • Industry – Regulation, utilities, manufacturers • Business • Athletics and Entertainment – Travel with the team and handle the press • International – Developing businesses overseas WWII Office of War Information

Versatility & Public Relations • Writing and Editing – Press releases, newsletters, reports • Versatility & Public Relations • Writing and Editing – Press releases, newsletters, reports • • • Media Relations Special events Public Speaking Production Tasks Research – Gather data for planning • Programming and counseling – Establish effective programs • Training • Management

Public Relations and the Media • Attracting attention • Press releases and news coverage Public Relations and the Media • Attracting attention • Press releases and news coverage – News outlets need news – Press releases help • Publicity vs advertising – – Ads are paid for Publicity is free Ads are controlled Publicity is uncontrolled • No control over its use

Public Relations Professionalism • “True communications technicians” • Excitement about the profession • Manipulation? Public Relations Professionalism • “True communications technicians” • Excitement about the profession • Manipulation? – Advancing the cause of a client • “Attorneys in the court of public opinion”

jmmelton/motleyimage Global Growth of PR • PR closely tied to mass media industries • jmmelton/motleyimage Global Growth of PR • PR closely tied to mass media industries • Growing international markets • Global communications • Internet, satellite effects – Online Public Relations • Shifting demographics

Critical Discussion 1. Some people view the work of public relations professionals as manipulating Critical Discussion 1. Some people view the work of public relations professionals as manipulating the facts to put their client in the best light regardless of the circumstances. What kind of ethical issues might this create for the PR practitioner? 2. Compare the effectiveness of public relations techniques used in the Odwalla and Utah mine campaigns. What other public relations campaigns come to mind? What works and what doesn’t when devising PR strategy?