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1 Title I, Part D (Neglected or Delinquent Education) Programs and Special Education Coordination John Mc. Laughlin Federal Program Manager, Title I, Part D U. S. Department of Education (OESE, SASA)
Framing the Issue SIMON GONSOULIN DIRECTOR, NDTAC AIR
Who is NDTAC? The National Evaluation and Technical Assistance Center for the Education of Children and Youth Who Are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk (NDTAC) is a national resource center funded by ED providing direct assistance to state and local educational agencies, juvenile justice facilities, and community schools in the implementation of Title I, Part D (TIPD). NDTAC provides technical assistance through: • • Direct communication with State coordinators and colleagues Peer-to-peer community calls Webinars and other virtual events NDTAC National Conferences Briefs, fact sheets, toolkits, and guides National, State, and local conference presentations www. neglected-delinquent. org
Education for Youth in Child Welfare Question: Who is responsible for the education of youth engaged in the child welfare system? Answer: Everyone responsible for the well being of a child is inherently responsible for his or her academic achievement.
Characteristics of Youth in Child Welfare As compared to their non-system-involved peers, youth involved with the foster care system more often face: Higher rates of educational failure Unemployment Poverty Single parenting Mental health concerns Housing instability Victimization (Osgood, Foster, Flanagan, Ruth, 2005)
Collaboration is Key Unfortunately, many agency policies, practices, and services intended to help youth involved in the child welfare system are often limited, duplicative , and/or fragmented. Collaboration is the key to achieving practice, policy, and cultural changes that support educational stability and achievement for children and youth in care and for those responsible for their well-being. (Casey Family Programs, 2011)
Barriers to Collaboration Philosophical barriers between systems: different goals and missions Structural barriers: separate agencies with separate funding streams and management structures, informationsharing challenges, desire to protect one’s turf Language and communication barriers: lots of jargon in all agencies, different ways of speaking about youth and families, lack of mechanism to allow systems to routinely communicate with one another Staff resistance barriers: collaboration can be threatening to staff, staff may feel out of their element if forced to think and act differently, reluctant to work with young adult offenders Source: NCMHJJ
Possible Solutions Establishing and solidifying strong collaborations between child welfare and education Establishing and implementing formalized information sharing agreements Convening cross-agency training and meetings Addressing challenges through strategic problem solving Acting as advocates for the promotion of youth’s educational stability and success (Christian, 2003)
Introduction to the Panel Format: David Osher American Institutes for Research Peter Leone University of Maryland Maura Mc. Inerney, Esq. Education Law Center
The Connection Between School Climate, The Conditions for Learning, and Academic Success DAVID OSHER VICE PRESIDENT, AMERICAN INSTITUTES FOR RESEARCH CO-DIRECTOR, HUMAN AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
Outline Outcomes Challenge posed by trauma and mental health needs
Dismal Long Term Outcomes On Your Own without a Net (Mc. Arthur Foundation study of Transition to Adulthood of Vulnerable Populations) homelessness, mental health issues, disabilities special health care needs (Osgood, Foster, Flanagan, & Ruth, 2005) 3/10 of homeless adults former foster children (Casey Family Programs, 2001) 1/3 former Foster children need public assistance after 18 (Cournteny, Grogan-Taylor, Nesmith, 1998) Education Key to Success (Cook, 1992; National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges, 2002)
Education and Children in the Child Welfare System Poorer Education Outcomes AIR California Study (Parrish et al. , 2005) Chicago Example Graduation Rates: 1998 -2003: All Students – 59% Children in Forster Care – 32% More identification as special education classification or an emotional or behavioral disturbance (Smithgall, Gladden, Yang, Goerge, 2005) Poorer Education Placements (Allensworth, Bryk, Easton, Luppescu & Sebring, Forthcoming) More mobility (COURTNEY, RODERICK, SMITHGALL, GLADDEN, & NAGAOKA, 2004)
National Working Group on Foster Care and Education: Long Term Goals Educational stability for children and youth in foster care Seamless educational transitions for children and youth when education changes do occur High quality educational experiences, expectations and aspirations for young people in foster care Greater national attention to the disparate educational outcomes for young people in foster care, particularly children and youth of color
What is our Standard of Success? Is Being On Track Sufficient? Northwest Foster Alumni Study (Washington & Oregon) Alumni obtained a high school diploma or passed the general education development (GED) test at the same rates as 25 -to 34 -year-olds generally 84. 5% versus 87. 3% But , they were much less likely to have a bachelor’s degree 1. 8% versus 22. 5%.
The Particular Challenges of Trauma and Mental Health Needs Removal from a family – no matter how dangerous the situation – is emotionally traumatizing for the child. What precedes OR follows removal, may also cause trauma or retraumatization Over 54% of foster care alumni had at least one mental health problem (depression, social phobia, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder, among others) compared with 22. 1% of the general population About one quarter of the alumni experienced post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This figure is greater than the prevalence of PTSD among Vietnam or Iraq war veterans — about 15%.
Impact of Trauma Increased Depression Anxiety Anger Behavioral Problems Greater alcohol and substance abuse Lower Academic Achievement The altered neural systems can shape behavioral that affect learning and subject to adult counteraggression
Trauma and Mental Health Needs Relational issues are particularly important for children in the child welfare system due to the likelihood of exposure to trauma or the existence of mental health issues.
Responding to Trauma EVERY system involved needs to be addressing the feelings and fears that result and not retraumatize Some (maybe a lot) of the “troubling” behaviors children exhibit in foster care and “special schools” is due to: system ignorance of this trauma, and failure to provide the essential emotional supports to overcome the anxieties.
Placement Instability Mobility is a risk factor (Osher, Morrison, & Bailey, 2002) Children experience frequent moves from one placement to another due to: A STUDY OF PLACEMENT STABILITY IN ILLINOIS challenges in meeting the emotional and developmental needs of foster children, often without adequate resources (Zinn, De. Coursey, Goerge, and Courtney, 2006)
Placement Instability Children experience frequent moves from one placement to another due to: challenges in meeting the emotional and developmental needs of foster children, often without adequate resources three-quarters (75. 9%) of children's most recent placement moves were due, at least in part, to foster parents' inability or unwillingness to continue fostering the reason most commonly cited was foster parent's inability to tolerate children's behavioral or emotional problems (27. 6%). Zinn, De. Coursey, Goerge, and Courtney, 2006
Implications for Schools: Background Emotions and social emotional capacities affect learning and teaching Relationships and social and emotional capacity provide a foundation for learning and transition planning Contexts affect emotions and relationships Learning is social process that depends upon the ability of the student to attend and the teacher to personalize
Implications for Schools: Background There are measurable conditions for learning that affect the ability of students to attend and teachers to personalize There are measureable social emotional capacities that affect the conditions for learning Conditions and capacities can be improved through intervention.
What Affects Learning Outcomes? Teaching Learning Capacities Better Outcomes Conditions
Conditions for Learning (CFL) Safety Support , Care, & Connection • Physically safe • Emotionally safe • Treated fairly and equitably • Avoid risky behaviors • School is safe and orderly • Meaningful connection to adults • Experience of Care & Respect • Strong bonds to school • Positive peer relationships • Effective and available support Challenge & Engagement Social Emotional Competency • High expectations • School is connected to life goals • Strong personal motivation • Academic Engagement • Rigorous academic opportunities • Emotional intelligence • Self Regulation • Culturally competence • Responsible and persistent • Cooperative team players • Contribute to school community Osher et al. , 2008
Safety and Statewide Tests
Implications for Children in Foster Care: National Working Group on Foster Care and Education Research Findings: Changing schools hinders academic achievement Students must be enrolled in school quickly and consistently Regular school attendance matters Children must have support to prevent serious behavior problems at school Multiple moves often mean lower test scores Research Highlights on Education and Foster Care (July 2011)
Implications for Children in Foster Care: National Working Group on Foster Care and Education Research Findings (cont. ): Holding students back can lead to dropping out of school Children’s special education needs must be met with quality services Support is needed to ensure students graduate Financial aid, scholarships and housing support lead to college success A strong start is especially important for young children in foster care Research Highlights on Education and Foster Care (July 2011)
Children in Foster Care Can Be Negatively Affected by Low Teacher and Staff Support Negative Peer Relationships Chaotic & Reactive Environments Poor Instructional and Behavioral Practices
Social and Emotional Conditions for Being Off Track
CFL by Ethnicity African American Mean CFL Value (Scale Score) students provided the lowest ratings on the Safety Scales and the Social Emotional Scales. Mean CFLValue (Scale Score) Middle Grades 360 340 320 300 280 260 240 Safety Challenge Student Support White (n=6, 568) African Am (n=34, 684) Asian (n=2, 553) Soc Emot Learning Hispanic (n=29, 117) High School 360 340 320 300 280 260 240 Safety Challenge Student Support White (n=6, 466) African Am (n=27, 322) Asian (n=3, 009) Hispanic (n=21, 799) Soc Emot Learning
Both Supportive Relationships Between Teachers and Students and Social Emotional Learning Promote: Student engagement Positive attitudes towards learning A sense of belonging toward school Academic motivation Academic achievement (Barber & Oson, 1997; Begin & Begin, 2009; Birch & Ladd, 1997, Christenson & Anderson, 2002; Connell Halpern-Felsher, Clifford, Crichlow, & Usinger, 1995; Durlak, Weissberg, Dymnicki, & Taylor, 2011; Hamre & Pianta, 2001; Osterman, 2000; Zins, Weissberg, Wang, Walberg, 2004 Wentzel, 1997; Wentzel & Wigfield, 1998)
Why Are Conditions for Learning Important? Maximizing the amount of time that students really attend to learning working memory (Davidson, 2002) chemical changes (e. g. , cortisol) Maximizing the opportunity for the teacher to: Concentrate and differentiate Teach in the Zone of Proximal Development (Vygotsky, 1978) Personalizing instruction Scaffolding learning and support
or e do m ) ZPD (b (f ru challenge st ra ti on ) The Zone of Proximal Development for Learning and Development support Adapted from: Nakkula, & Toshalis, 2006
Teaching and developing behaviors, habits, and social problemsolving skills that are important for success in school, work, and life (Social Emotional Learning) Self-Awareness (e. g. , identifying and recognizing own emotions, recognizing strengths) Social Awareness (e. g. , empathy, respect for others) Responsible Decision Making (e. g. , evaluation and reflection, personal responsibility) Self-Management (e. g. , impulse control, stress management) Relationship Skills (e. g. , working cooperatively, help seeking and providing)
Evidence of Success with SEL 23% increase in skills 9% improvement in attitudes about self, others, and school 9% improvement in prosocial behavior 9% reduction in problem behaviors 10% reduction in emotional distress 11% increase in standardized achievement test scores (math and reading) Source: Durlak, J. A. , Weissberg, R. P. , Taylor, R. D. , & Dymnicki, A. B. (in press, Child Development). The effects of school-based social and emotional learning: A meta-analytic review
SEL & Attitudes Higher sense of self-efficacy Better sense of community (bonding) and view of school as caring More positive attitudes toward school and learning Higher academic motivation and educational aspirations Greater trust and respect for teachers Improved coping with school stressors Increased understanding of consequences of behavior
What Youth Say Teachers Can Do Demonstrate Caring and Respect Make a serious effort to know every student well so they feel supported and motivated to learn Plan Provide students with the information they need to do their work Be clear about expectations and concepts. Create opportunities for students really learn about classmates’ cultures to help reduce negative peer interactions Don’t do things that embarrass individual students Don’t write them off.
What Former Foster Care Youth Say Works The most important things to be successful: Caring, motivated mentors Role models Adults who listen to them Encouragement and high expectations from others Boundaries and structure from adults
What Former Foster Care Youth Say Works The most important things to be successful: Having basic needs met (e. g. , housing, nutrition, clothing) A stable living situation Supportive friends who are a positive influence; avoidance of peers who are a negative influence Support to develop good mental and emotional health
What Former Foster Care Youth Say Works The most important things to be successful: Adequate educational support (e. g. , financial aid for higher education, assistance transitioning to college, help learning how higher education systems work) Hope, self-confidence, a sense of responsibility, and personal goals Faith, a belief in something
What Former Foster Care Youth Say Works The most important things to be successful: Opportunities to develop and model healthy relationships (e. g. , with younger siblings) Opportunities to develop talents and participate in enrichment activities (e. g. , sports) Opportunities to develop skills for leadership and professionalism (e. g. , presenting self well, being articulate)
Bottom Line Cannot Improve Foster Care Outcomes Without Addressing Mental Health and Social Emotional Learning Cannot Address Mental Health Outcomes Without Addressing Schools Cannot Succeed Without Addressing the Social Relationships Between and Among Youth and Adults Cannot Address Either Without Addressing Need For Capacity & Support Cannot Succeed At Everything Without a Three-tiered Approach that Addresses Promotion, Prevention, as Well As Treatment
Bottom Line Need to be: Strengths Based Youth Driven Family Driven Culturally Competent Minimize Risk, Build Protective Factors Focus on Thriving Build Settings that Develop and Support Resilience
Bottom Line Race & Ethnicity Matter Culture and Language Matter Poverty Matters Local Context Matters Families Matter Youth Voice Matter Capacity Matters
Resources Safeguarding Our Children: An Action Guide, Revised and Expanded (Sopris West) Teaching and Working with Children with Emotional and Behavioral Challenges (Sopris West) Addressing Student Problem Behavior (Parts 1, 2, 3) (CECP) “Schools Make a Difference, ” in Racial Inequity in Special Education, The Civil Rights Project at Harvard University and the Harvard Education Press
References Bryk, A. S. , Sebring, P. B. , Allensworth, E. , Luppescu, S. & Easton, J. Q. (2010)0. Organizing schools for improvement: Lessons from Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Davidson, R. (2002). Anxiety and affective style: Role of prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Biological Psychiatry, 51(1), 68 -80. Durlak, J. A. , Weissberg, R. P. , Taylor, R. D. , & Dymnicki, A. B. (2011). The effects of school-based social and emotional learning: A meta-analytic review, Child Development, 82 (1), 405 -432. Greenberg, E. , Skidmore, D. , & Rhodes, D. (2004, April). Climates for learning: mathematics achievement and its relationship to schoolwide student behavior, schoolwide parental involvement, and school morale. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Researchers Association, San Diego, CA. Gregory, A. , & Weinstein, R. S. (2004). Connection and regulation at home and in school: Predicting growth in achievement for adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 19, 405– 427. Hattie, J. (2009). Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York: Routledge. Muller, C. (2001). The role of caring in the teacher-student relationship for at-risk students. Sociological Inquiry, 71, 241– 255. Nakkula, M. J. , & Toshalis, E. (2006). Understanding youth: Adolescent development for educators. Cambridge: Harvard Education Press. National Working Group on Foster Care Education. (July 2011). Research Highlights on Education and Foster Care. Seattle, WA: Casey Family Programs. Retrieved from http: //www. casey. org/Resources/Publications/pdf/Educational. Outcomes. Fact. Sheet. pdf.
References Osher, D. , Bear, G. , Sprague, J. , & Doyle, W. (January-February, 2010). How we can improve school discipline. Educational Researcher, 39 (1), 48 -58. Osher, D. & Kendziora, K. (2010). Building Conditions for Learning and Healthy Adolescent Development: Strategic Approaches in B. Doll, W. Pfohl, & J. Yoon (Eds. ) Handbook of Youth Prevention Science. New York: Routledge. Spier, E. , Osher, D. , Kendziora, K. , Cai. , C. (2009). Alaska Ice Summative Report. Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research. Osher, D. , Sidana, A. , & Kelly, P. (2008) Improving conditions for learning for youth who are neglected or delinquent. Washington, D. C. : National Evaluation and Technical Assistance Center for the Education of Children and Youth who are Delinquent, Neglected, or at Risk. Osher, D. , Poirier, J. A. , Dwyer, K. P. , Hicks, R. , Brown, L. J. Lampron, S. , & Rodrigquez, C. (2008). Cleveland Metropolitan School District Human Ware Audit: Findings and recommendations. Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research. Osher, D. , Sprague, J. , Weissberg, R. P. , Axelrod, J. , Keenan, S. , Kendziora, K. , & Zins, J. E. (2008). A comprehensive approach to promoting social, emotional, and academic growth in contemporary schools. In A. Thomas & J. Grimes (Eds. ) Best practices in school psychology V, Vol. 4 (pp. 1263– 1278). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists. Ryan, A. M. , & Patrick, H. (2001). The classroom social environment and changes in adolescents’ motivation and engagement during middle school. American Educational Research Journal, 38, 437– 460. Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society. Cambridge, MA : Harvard University Press.
Children in Out-of-Home Care Best Practices, Evidence-Based Practices, and Evaluating Programs Peter Leone University of Maryland
Meeting the Educational Needs of Youth in the Foster Care and Delinquency Systems Shared Responsibility, Collaboration, Leadership Improved Education Outcomes
52 Communication & Collaboration Across Agencies that Serve Children Key Elements Child Welfare Juvenile Justice Education • Decision making • Targeted services • Shared resources • Shared expertise • Leadership Outcomes • Minimize disruptions to students’ education • Ensure all students receive timely services
PRINCIPLES Early Education is Essential Measuring Outcomes that Matter Improved Education Outcomes Quality Education Services are Critical Change Requires within Agency and Cross-agency Leadership 53 Individually. Tailored Support Services Interagency Communication & Collaboration
Strategy: Increase Student Engagement 54 Provide multiple opportunities for academic engagement and opportunity to respond Increase social engagement Give students a piece of the action Provide alternative ways to respond
Strategy: Provide Educational Stability 55 Enhance transportation support Improve out of home placement stability Reduce the use of suspension and expulsion (revise zero tolerance policies) Enhance transition support when placement and/or school changes occur Ensure educational rights are honored Engage the youth’s family
Strategy: Collaboration Cross Systems Workgroups Shared Databases Timely transfer of records Cross-Agency Training Multi-Disciplinary Teams Education Liaisons Family Group Conferencing
Strategies: Program Evaluation Measuring what matters – student performance Observing and listening to our students Creating accountability Foster care, group home, juvenile justice Engaging state department of education in supporting programs and holding them accountable Source: Leone, Peter and Lois Weinberg (2010). Addressing the Unmet Educational Needs of Children and Youth in the Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare Systems. Washington, DC: Center for Juvenile Justice Reform, Georgetown University.
Collaborating To Meet the Educational Needs of Children in Care: Strategies to Improve Outcomes for Children With Disabilities Maura Mc. Inerney, Esq. Education Law Center 1315 Walnut Street Philadelphia, PA 19107 www. elc-pa. org
Legal Center for Foster Care & Education o A collaboration between the ABA, the Juvenile Law Center and Education Law Center, Casey Family Programs and the Annie E. Casey Foundation. o A national technical assistance resource and information clearinghouse on legal and policy matters affecting the education of children and youth in out-of-home care o Website: www. abanet. org/child/education n Listserv, Conference Calls, Publications, Searchable Database
Overview o Understanding the Special Education Barriers for Children in Care o How Child Welfare & Education Can Collaborate to Address These Needs o What Courts Can Do For You o Strategies & Tips
The Special Education Landscape o Special education is parent driven system Children in care often lack an active involved special education decisionmaker. o Child-find = knowledge of a student Because children in care highly mobile, special education needs may remain unidentified and unknown to current caretakers. o Time is of the essence Frequent school moves result in delayed evaluations, lost IEPs and mean that appropriate services are not provided in a timely manner.
The Special Education Landscape o IEPs are not reviewed or progress monitored based on consistent standards and assessments. o Specially designed instruction, resources & services are unknown. o Schools & parents usually do not engage in ongoing communication. o Transition plans are not detailed and youth-driven. Future plans: unclear.
Child Welfare’s Role: The Linchpin o Communicate with school and relevant personnel o Provide needed records & background o Ensure active involved decisionmaker o Attend school-based informal & official meetings (e. g. , IEP, manifestation determinations etc. ) o Know the special education system.
Role of Education: The Door o Understand the barriers. o Know the players, even when they change or are new to the system. o Welcome visitors who provide insight & can help develop better IEPs o Explain the process and the options o Ask questions = know the student o Integrate pre-existing services.
Role of Courts: The Key o Education records o Appoint Education Decisionmaker o Identify a child who may need to be evaluated and order DHS to act o Ask the questions: n Educational placement (alt ed, LRE etc. ) n Is child making progress? n School discipline issues
Courts As Monitor o Role of courts in ensuring the “well being” of child includes addressing educational needs: n Well-being outcome: tracking through court system n Link between addressing education needs and achieving permanency o Specific issues to consider at every hearing: n Is a court order needed to access to IEP, ed records? n Does the child have an active, involved Special Education Decisionmaker (Surrogate Parent)? n Is child in least restrictive environment? n Is child making progress? n Is IEP Team coordinating transition planning?
Resources for Judges n Technical Assistance Brief: Asking the Right Questions II: Judicial Checklists to Meet the Educational Needs of Children and Youth in Foster Care- NCJFCJ Outlines questions that should be asked in a courtroom with respect to the educational needs of children and youth in foster care. http: //www. ncjfcj. org/content/blogcategory/363/432/ n Blueprint For Change: Detailed framework is structured around eight concrete goals for youth and include benchmarks that demonstrate progress toward achieving Education Success for children in foster care. www. abanet. org/child/education/blueprint n Judicial Guide to Implementing the Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 available at http: //www. grandfamilies. org/images/pdf/Judicial%20 Guide %20 to%20 Fostering%20 Connections%202011. pdf
SPECIAL EDUCATION: TIPS & BEST PRACTICES
Child Welfare & Education: Collaboration is KEY Caseworkers and school staff must collaborate: n School placement n School stability n Attendance issues n Development of IEP n Maintenance and tuning of IEP n Integrate and collaborate provision of services n Ensure progress towards IEP goals n Address school discipline issues n Identify Special Education Decision Maker n Transition planning & services
Effective Collaborations o Relationship building: n Understand the “other” perspective: recognize common goals of different systems n Communicate often and regularly: Talk about the good things not just the bad. o Know what you don’t know and respect the other system’s expertise. o Respect the process. o Document o Learn more. “Know-it-all” less.
Tips for Collaborating in the Special Education Context o Identifying children: Expedite evaluations o Ensure consents are available, signed and provided to school district. Document. o Attend & share “appropriate” information at IEP meetings. Communicate in between. o Address behaviors don’t’ deny them. Attend school discipline meetings o Conduct funct’l behavioral assessment AND revision IEPs re disability-related conduct. o Consider a child’s need for 504 Plan. o Coordinate transition planning.
Resources for Educators & Caseworkers n Blueprint For Change: Detailed framework is structured around eight concrete goals for youth and include benchmarks that demonstrate progress toward achieving Education Success for children in foster care. www. abanet. org/child/education/blueprint n State Implemention Toolkit: Guide to Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 n Casey Family Programs: Endless Dreams Curriculum n Educator Screen
Court’s Special Ed Checklist Consider issues at EVERY stage of process: n Is the child in the right school placement and least restrictive environment in accordance with the special ed process? n Does the youth need an eval or re-eval? n Does child need different or additional supports or services to make progress? n Does child have an ACTIVE involved special education decisionmaker? n Does the youth need accommodations in school for a physical or behavioral issue?
Checklist (Cont’d) n Is the youth on track to graduate? n What is the graduation plan: What school will issue a diploma? Does the youth have sufficient credits? n Does the youth’s transition plan address education goals and issues in sufficient detail? n Who will assist the youth to access postsecondary opportunities?
Contact Information Education Law Center www. elc-pa. org Maura Mc. Inerney Education Law Center 1315 Walnut Street Philadelphia, PA 19107 215 -238 -6970 Ext. 31 [email protected] org