- Количество слайдов: 32
1. Identify and analyze issues related to the election process in the United States 2. Trace key Supreme Court decisions related to a provision of the Constitution (e. g. , cases related to reapportionment of legislative districts
The deliberate rearrangement of the boundaries of congressional districts to influence the outcome of elections
The number of legislators elected to the House of Representatives from each state is based on that state’s population. Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers. . The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. Article I, Section 2 Clause 3 U. S. Constitution
The process of dividing the 435 seats in the House of Representatives among the 50 states
State Apportionment Population Number of Apportioned Representatives Based on Census 2000 Change From 1990 Census Apportionment Ohio 11, 374, 540 18 -1 Pennsylvania 12, 300, 670 19 -2 Illinois 12, 439, 042 19 -1 Michigan 9, 955, 829 15 -1 California 33, 930, 798 53 +1 Arizona 5, 140, 683 8 +2 New York 19, 004, 973 29 -2 Georgia 8, 206, 975 13 +2 Texas 20, 903, 994 32 +2
Process of revising district boundaries in order to balance population represented by individual members of a district type.
Original gerrymander was created in 1812 by Mass. governor Elbridge Gerry, who crafted a district for political purposes that looked like a salamander
1. Packing - place as many voters of 1 type into a single district to reduce their influence in other districts.
2. Cracking - involves spreading out voters of a particular type among many districts in order to reduce their representation by denying them a sufficiently large voting block in any particular district.
Special districting software has made gerrymandering a far more precise science. political party registration previous campaign donations # of times residents voted in previous elections Age Income Race Education level Redistricting Software
Highway 106 “Toxic Spill” The Ghost Busters Fuzzy Earmuffs Road Kill Swamp Fever
Miller v. Johnson 1994 Supreme Court ruled this district unconstitutional since it’s borders were drawn with explicitly racial motives.
District Representative Party Hometown 1 Steve Driehaus D Cincinnati 2 Jean Schmidt R Miami Township 3 Michael R. Turner R Dayton 4 Jim Jordan R Urbana 5 Bob Latta R Tiffin 6 Charles A. Wilson D St. Clairsville 7 Steve Austria R Springfield 8 John A. Boehner R West Chester 9 Marcy Kaptur D Toledo 10 Dennis J. Kucinich D Cleveland 11 Marcia Fudge D Cleveland 12 Pat Tiberi D Galena 13 Betty Sutton D Copley 14 Steven C. La. Tourette R Concord Township 15 Mary Jo Kilroy D Columbus 16 John Boccieri D Navarre 17 Tim Ryan D Niles 18 Zachary T. Space D Dover
In 1967, Congress passed a law requiring all U. S. Reps to be elected from single member. Congress in 1982 amended the Voting Rights Act to protect voting rights of protected racial minorities in redistricting. Within those laws, states have great leeway to draw districts, which often leads to gerrymandering.
1. Reduction in electoral competition & voter turnout 2. Increased incumbent advantage & campaign costs 3. Less descriptive representation 4. Incumbent gerrymandering
1. Redistricting by neutral or cross-party agency 2. Shortest splitline algorithm 3. Proportional representation
2003 Texas Redistricting Video
3 Districts Sun – 1 Moon - 2
3 Districts Sun – 2 Moon - 1
4 Districts Green – 1? Magenta – 3?
14 th Amendment’s Equal Protection Clause; “one man, one vote”; ordered state legislative districts to be as near equal as possible in population; reapportionment; example of Warren Court’s judicial activism
Built on Baker case; Required virtually every state legislature to be reapportioned; shifted power from rural to urban areas
Ordered House of Representative legislative districts to be as near in population as possible; extended Baker v. Carr (1962) to the national government
No racial gerrymandering; race cannot be the sole or predominant factor in redrawing legislative boundaries; majority-minority districts.
1. Is Redistricting fair? Why or Why not? 2. How do your political beliefs alter your answer? 3. Do you believe the redistricting process should be less partisan? 4. In what ways, if any, would you reform the current process?