1 Антагонисты допамина в лечении болезни Паркинсона Clinical

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1 Антагонисты допамина в лечении болезни Паркинсона Clinical Pharmacology, Efficacy and Safety Peter Jenner, BPharm (Hons),1 Антагонисты допамина в лечении болезни Паркинсона Clinical Pharmacology, Efficacy and Safety Peter Jenner, BPharm (Hons), Ph. D, DSc, FRPharm. S, FBPharmacol. S, FKC King’s College London, UK

Об авторе Peter Jenner  • Профессор фармакологии в школе медико-биологических и медицинских наук в КоролевскомОб авторе Peter Jenner • Профессор фармакологии в школе медико-биологических и медицинских наук в Королевском колледже Лондона. Глава исследовательской группы нейродегенеративных заболеваний. Директор Национального фонда Паркинсона Центр передового опыта. Профессор Дженнер внесла свой вклад в развитие новых терапевтических подходов к лечению болезни Паркинсона.

3 Предисловие В последние годы философия для лечения болезни Паркинсона (БП) был перенесен на более широкое3 Предисловие В последние годы философия для лечения болезни Паркинсона (БП) был перенесен на более широкое использование без спорыньи агонистов дофамина лекарства, такие как прамипексол и ропинирол, особенно в ранних стадиях болезни. В этой презентации, обоснование их использования в начале PD и в его более поздних стадиях изучается. Исходя из их фармакологических эффектов и более длительным действием, используется для объяснения клинической эффективности агонистов дофамина и приведенный потенциал для индукции дискинезии. Проблемы возникающие при дофаминергических препаратов в общем, такие, как сон атак и компульсивного поведения, объясняются и стратегии их клинического ведения представлены. Наконец, потенциальные фармакокинетические и фармакодинамические взаимодействия исследованы, чтобы гарантировать, что агонисты дофамина используется для лучшего эффекта в лечении ДП и с самой высокой точки зрения безопасности. Yamamoto M, Schapira AH. Expert Rev Neurother 2008; 8(4): 671 -7. Jenner P. Neurology 2002; 58(4 Suppl 1): S 1 -8.

4 Содержание • Роль агонистов дофамина в лечении болезни Паркинсона (БП) • Агонистов дофамина - Фармакологические4 Содержание • Роль агонистов дофамина в лечении болезни Паркинсона (БП) • Агонистов дофамина — Фармакологические профиля • Нейропротекция • Нарушения сна при БП • Импульс управления расстройств при БП • Фиброз при БП • Фармакокинетика и лекарственные взаимодействия • Агонисты допамина и PD – • Выводы

5 Роль агонистов дофамина в лечении болезни Паркинсона 5 Роль агонистов дофамина в лечении болезни Паркинсона

6 Проблемы в лечении БП • Двигатель симптомы Разнообразие не-двигательных симптомов Замедление прогрессирования заболевания Двигатель осложнений6 Проблемы в лечении БП • Двигатель симптомы Разнообразие не-двигательных симптомов Замедление прогрессирования заболевания Двигатель осложнений — «изнашивания», «включено-выключено», дискинезия Лекарственные взаимодействия и безопасность Poewe W. Eur J Neurol 2008; 15 Suppl 1: 14 -20. Schapira AH. Mov Disord 2007; 22 Suppl 17: S 385 -91. Pahwa R. J Am Med Dir Assoc 2006; 7(7 Suppl 2): 4 -10. c

7 Non-Мотор Симптомы PD Нервно-психические симптомы Депрессия, тревога,  панические атаки,  галлюцинации, психозы,  когнитивные7 Non-Мотор Симптомы PD Нервно-психические симптомы Депрессия, тревога, панические атаки, галлюцинации, психозы, когнитивные нарушения сна Синдром беспокойных ног (СБН) и периодические движения конечностей, REM сна поведения расстройство (Рос. БР), чрезмерной дневной сонливости, апноэ во сне вегетативные симптомы Функции мочевого пузыря, потливость, ортостатическая гипотензия, падает, импотенция Желудочно-кишечные симптомы Слюни, глотания и запоры Сенсорные симптомы Боль и обоняние дисфункции Другие симптомы Усталость, походки и нарушения баланса, речь импотенции Adapted from Chaudhuri KR, et al. Lancet Neurol 2006; 5: 235 -45.

8 Симптомы у двигателя БП симптоматическое лечение Недофаминергических препаратов Антихолинергические:  benzhexol, тригексифенидил Глутамат антагониста: 8 Симптомы у двигателя БП симптоматическое лечение Недофаминергических препаратов Антихолинергические: benzhexol, тригексифенидил Глутамат антагониста: амантадин. Леводопа Декарбоксилазы ингибиторы: бенсеразида, карбидопа Ингибиторы КОМТ: энтакапона, толкапона агонисты дофамина Номера препараты спорыньи: прамипексол, ропинирол, rotigotine Препараты спорыньи: бромокриптин, каберголин, lisuride, перголида МАО-В ингибиторов селегилин, разагилина Nirenberg MJ, Fahn S. In: Principles of Treatment in Parkinson’s Disease; 2005.

9 Симптоматического лечения двигательных симптомов при БП Dopamine transporter Postsynap tic terminal in the striatum. Synap9 Симптоматического лечения двигательных симптомов при БП Dopamine transporter Postsynap tic terminal in the striatum. Synap tic vesicl e Dopamine. L-DOPATyrosine MAO-ATHDDCPresynaptic terminal from the substantia nigra D D D Blood-brain barrier L-DOPATyrosine 3 -OMD Dopamine Benzerazide Carbidopa DDCCOMT Tolcapone MAO-A MAO-BCOMT Glial cell. Astrocyte. Entacapone Tolcapone Selegiline Rasagiline Adapted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: Youdim MB, et al. Nat Rev Neurosci 2006; 7: 295 — 309 © 2006. Сокращения : DDC, dopa decarboxylase; TH, tyrosine hydroxylase; L-DOPA, levodopa; MAO-A, monoamine oxidase A; MAO-B, monoamine oxidase B; COMT, catechol- O -methyltransferase; D, dopamine receptors; 3 -OMD, 3 -O-methyldopa

10 Агонисты дофамина при БП Фармакологические Преимущества • Прямая стимуляция рецепторов допамина Нет необходимости в метаболическими10 Агонисты дофамина при БП Фармакологические Преимущества • Прямая стимуляция рецепторов допамина Нет необходимости в метаболическими трансформациями допамина Активность независимо от других метаболических путей (КОМТ, МАО) Не зависит от пресинаптических дофаминергических хранение в терминалах Poewe W. In: Principles of Treatment in Parkinson’s Disease; 2005.

11 Агонисты дофамина в лечении БП Терапии первой линии в начале PD Обеспечить контроль двигательных симптомов11 Агонисты дофамина в лечении БП Терапии первой линии в начале PD Обеспечить контроль двигательных симптомов в течение нескольких лет Низкая частота двигателя осложнений Задержка использования леводопы и связанных с ним осложнений двигателя Предполагаемые воздействия на депрессивные симптомы Предполагаемые нейропротекторное деятельности Хорошо переносится Yamamoto M, Schapira AH. Expert Rev Neurother 2008; 8(4): 671 -7.

Долгосрочное использование прамипексола в раннем БП Эффективность 12 Поддержкой прамипексола лечения монотерапии в начале результатов ПДДолгосрочное использование прамипексола в раннем БП Эффективность 12 Поддержкой прамипексола лечения монотерапии в начале результатов ПД в значительно более низкие показатели дискинезии по сравнению с леводопой Corbin A, Köster J. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2007; 13 (Suppl 2): S 106. Отчет о дискинезия как побочный эффект Дискинезии на Анкетирования 010203040 5060 прамипексола монотерапия (n = 44)П а ц и е н т ы (% ) Примапексол ± леводопа (n = 151) Леводопа общая (n = 150)Процент пациентов с двигательными осложнениями

13 Антогонисты дофамина в лечении БП Средне-и поздней стадии заболевания Дополнительной терапии с леводопой Разрешить снижение13 Антогонисты дофамина в лечении БП Средне-и поздней стадии заболевания Дополнительной терапии с леводопой Разрешить снижение дозы леводопы Расширение продолжительность эффекта Задержка «изнашивания» Предполагаемые воздействия на депрессивные симптомы Предполагаемые нейропротекции Weintraub D, et al. Am J Manag Care 2008; 14(2 Suppl): S 49 -58.

CС корость ответа( ) Pramipexole Placebo Rotigotine 67. 0* 35. 0 59. 7* 0, 010, 020,CС корость ответа(% ) Pramipexole Placebo Rotigotine 67. 0* 35. 0 59. 7* 0, 010, 020, 030, 040, 050, 060, 070, 080, 0 69. 7* 41. 1 63. 3* 0, 010, 020, 030, 040, 050, 060, 070, 080, 0 ITT † Per protocol. Прамипексола Расширенный БП Эффективность Reprinted from Poewe WH, et al. Lancet Neurol 2007; 6: 513 -20; SP 515, with permission from Elsevier. Изменения от исходного уровня до конца эксплуатационного периода для трех групп лечения ( † намерение для лечения и в соответствии с протоколом населения ); * P < 0. 0001 vs. placebo † Patients with ≥ 30% reduction in absolute “off” time.

15 Агонистов дофамина Фармакологические профиля 15 Агонистов дофамина Фармакологические профиля

16 Подтипы дофаминовых рецепторов D 1 -like receptors D 2 -like receptors D 1 D 216 Подтипы дофаминовых рецепторов D 1 -like receptors D 2 -like receptors D 1 D 2 D 5 D 3 D 4 Missale C, et al. Physiol Rev 1998; 78: 189 -225. Poewe W. In: Principles of Treatment in Parkinson’s Disease; 2005.

17 рецептор взаимодействия Номера для спорыньи агонистов Селективный для дофаминовых рецепторов Селективный для D 2 -подобные17 рецептор взаимодействия Номера для спорыньи агонистов Селективный для дофаминовых рецепторов Селективный для D 2 -подобные рецепторы семьи Не взаимодействует с D 1 -подобные рецепторы Спорынья агонистов Неселективные Закон о норадренергической и серотонинергической рецепторы Нет избирательности для подтипов рецепторов дофамина Millan MJ, et al. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2002; 303(2): 791 -804. Kvernmo T, et al. Clin Ther 2006; 28(8): 1065 -78.

18 Избирательность для D 3 дофаминовых рецепторов Примапексол  Бромокриптин  ропинирол  Каберголин  Перголид18 Избирательность для D 3 дофаминовых рецепторов Примапексол Бромокриптин ропинирол Каберголин Перголид 0. 4 1. 3 7. 8 0. 5 0. 4 Ratio of binding affinity (K i -values): the higher the number, the higher the affinity for D 3 vs. D 2 Reprinted from Kvernmo T, et al. Clin Ther 2006; 28: 1065 -1078, with permission from Elsevier. Brecht HM. Akt Neurol 1998; 25: S 310 -S 316.

19 D 3 рецепторы в мозгу Распределение D 3 рецепторов в мезолимбической дофаминергической системы могут быть19 D 3 рецепторы в мозгу Распределение D 3 рецепторов в мезолимбической дофаминергической системы могут быть вовлечены в настроении и поведении «Мотор области» — D 3 рецепторы потенциальную терапевтическую мишень Caudate nucleus Accumbens Putamen Ventral tegmental area Substantia nigra Missale C, et al. Physiol Rev 1998; 78: 189 -225. Joyce JN, et al. Brain Res 2002; 955: 138 -52. Kvernmo T, et al. Clin Ther. 2006; 28: 1065 -78. mesolimbic pathway nigrostriatal pathway D 3 receptor D 2 receptor. Amygdala

20 Агонисты дофамина Способ применения и Биодоступность L-DOPA Pramipexole Ropinirole Total dosage, mg/d Up to 200020 Агонисты дофамина Способ применения и Биодоступность L-DOPA Pramipexole Ropinirole Total dosage, mg/d Up to 2000 mg/d 0. 375 – 4. 5 (salt) 3 – 24 No. of daily doses 3– 8 3 3 Oral bioavailability, % 99% >90 50 Elimination t 1/2 , h 1. 5 8– 12 6 Poewe W. In: Principles of Treatment in Parkinson’s Disease; 2005. Deleu D, et al. Clin Pharmacokinet 2002; 41(4): 261 -309.

21 Непрерывная дофаминергической стимуляции (CDS) • Физиологическая стимуляция полосатой дофаминовых рецепторов является непрерывным и тоник Дофаминергической21 Непрерывная дофаминергической стимуляции (CDS) • Физиологическая стимуляция полосатой дофаминовых рецепторов является непрерывным и тоник Дофаминергической тон теряется в PD Пульсирующего стимуляции короткого действия таких препаратов, как леводопа производит ненормальное ответ и моторных осложнений Длительного действия агонистов дофамина, такие как прамипексол и ропинирол производить непрерывную дофаминергической стимуляции и нижние частоты двигателя осложнений по сравнению с леводопой • Fiziologicheskaya stimulyatsiya polosatoi dofaminovykh retseptorov yavlyaet·sya nepreryvnym i tonik Dofaminergicheskoi ton teryaet·sya v PD Pul siruyushchego stimulyatsii korotkogo dyeistviya takikh preparatov, kak levodopa ʹ proizvoditnenormal noe otvet i motornykh oslozhnenii ʹ Dlitel nogo dyeistviya agonistov dofamina , takie kak pramipeksol i ropinirol proizvodit nepreryvnuyu ʹ ʹ dofaminergicheskoi stimulyatsii i nizhniechastoty dvigatelya oslozhnenii po sravneniyu s levodopoi • Словарь Olanow W, et al. Trends Neurosci 2000; 23(10 Suppl): S 117 -26. Barone P. Neurology 2003; 61(6 Suppl 3): S 12 -6.

22 Допамин Используйте агонистично в раннем Дискинезии PD Dyskinesia by study’s end in the dopamine agonist22 Допамин Используйте агонистично в раннем Дискинезии PD Dyskinesia by study’s end in the dopamine agonist and levodopa comparison studies Dopamine agonist-treated subjects had a significantly lower risk for development of dyskinesia% subjects w ith dyskinesia 05101520253035 404550 Ropinirole Study Pramipexole Study Cabergoline Study. Levodopa Dopamine agonist Reprinted from Hubble JP. Neurology 2002; 58(4 Suppl 1): S 42 -50, with permission from Lipppincott, Williams & Wilkins.

Continuous Dopaminergic Stimulation (CDS) • A useful hypothesis for explaining differences between L-DOPA and dopamine agonistContinuous Dopaminergic Stimulation (CDS) • A useful hypothesis for explaining differences between L-DOPA and dopamine agonist drugs • Not proven clinically or experimentally 23 Nutt JG. Mov Disord 2007; 22(1): 1 -9.

Continuous Dopaminergic Stimulation (CDS) in Clinical Practice • Dopamine agonists always compared to L-DOPA • NoContinuous Dopaminergic Stimulation (CDS) in Clinical Practice • Dopamine agonists always compared to L-DOPA • No comparison between short-acting and long-acting dopamine agonists • No comparison of drugs with different half-lives • No comparison of standard oral L-DOPA with more continuous delivery (Exceptions: apomorphine and L-DOPA infusions) 24 Jenner P. Neurology 2004; 62(1 Suppl 1): S 47 -55. Nutt JG. Mov Disord 2007; 22(1): 1 -9.

Continuous Dopaminergic Stimulation and PD • Controlled-release levodopa + carbidopa produces the same prevalence of dyskinesiaContinuous Dopaminergic Stimulation and PD • Controlled-release levodopa + carbidopa produces the same prevalence of dyskinesia as standard levodopa + carbidopa – poor pharmacokinetic profile • Long-acting dopamine agonists (pramipexole, ropinirole, cabergoline) produce low levels of dyskinesia, but there is no correlation between risk of dyskinesia and biological half-life 25 Jenner P. Neurology 2004; 62(1 Suppl 1): S 47 -55. Nutt JG. Mov Disord 2007; 22(1): 1 -9.

26 Dopamine Agonists and Dyskinesia Risk Compared to Levodopa. R R  for dykinesia: D A26 Dopamine Agonists and Dyskinesia Risk Compared to Levodopa. R R for dykinesia: D A s vs. L-D O PA t 1/2 = 6 h t 1/2 = 8– 12 h 00, 1 0, 2 0, 30, 4 Pramipexole Ropinirole t 1/2 = 63– 110 h Cabergoline Inzelberg R, et al. Drugs Aging 2003; 20: 847 -55. Kvernmo T, et al. Clin Ther 2006; 28: 1065 -78.

27 Continuous Drug Delivery and PD • Levodopa plus COMT inhibitor • Intrajejunal administration – levodopa27 Continuous Drug Delivery and PD • Levodopa plus COMT inhibitor • Intrajejunal administration – levodopa • Transdermal administration – rotigotine, lisuride • Subcutaneous infusion – apomorphine • Extended release (ER) preparations – dopamine agonists Nyholm D. Clin Pharmacokinet 2006; 45(2): 109 -36.

A pom orphine plasm a concentration (ng/m L)110100 Apomorphine implant. Apomorphine 2 mg/kg injection days 6A pom orphine plasm a concentration (ng/m L)110100 Apomorphine implant. Apomorphine 2 mg/kg injection days 6 months. Continuous Drug Delivery and PD 28 Bibbiani F, et al. Exp Neurol 2005; 192(1): 73 -8.

Primate # 1 ,  2 ,  3 ,  4 0 D yskinesia scorePrimate # 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 0 D yskinesia score weeks months 1 3 610 Primate # 5 , 6 , 7 PULSATILE stimulation dyskinesias within 7– 10 days CONTINUOUS stimulation NO dyskinesias up to 6 months Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale. Continuous Drug Delivery and PD 29 Bibbiani F, et al. Exp Neurol 2005; 192(1): 73 -8.

Pramipexole  Extended Release (ER) 30 For IR, only the plasma concentrations after the first twoPramipexole Extended Release (ER) 30 For IR, only the plasma concentrations after the first two daily dosages were followed Plasma concentration time profiles of pramipexole after administration of 4. 5 mg pramipexole ER q. d. or 1. 5 mg pramipexole immediate release (IR) t. i. d under fasted conditions. Arithmetic mean (linear scale) 96 100 104 108 112 116 120 Pramipexole plasma conc. [ng/m. L]0246 810 Arithmetic mean (semi-log scale) Time [hours] 96 100 104 108 112 116 120 Pramipexole plasma conc. [ng/m. L]0. 1 110 Pramipexole IR tablet 1. 5 mg tid (N=24) ER tablet 4. 5 mg qd fasted (N=24) Time [hours]IR tablet 1. 5 mg tid (N=24) ER tablet 4. 5 mg qd fasted (N=24) Härtter et al. Neurol 2008; 3(S 15): 96(P 1244). All rights reserved. Pramipexole

Nocturnal Benefit – What the Patient Needs • A good night’s sleep • Address disturbances inNocturnal Benefit – What the Patient Needs • A good night’s sleep • Address disturbances in both patient and partner • Correct too little medication: – Drug treatment wears off over night and parkinsonian symptoms return – Patients cannot get to sleep, stay asleep, roll over or get up to use bathroom • Correct too much medication: – Agitation/sleeplessness – Dyskinesia disrupts sleep – REM sleep behavioural disorder – Vivid dreams, nightmares, hallucinations 31 Barone P, et al. Neurology 2004; 63(8 Suppl 3): S 35 -8. Guttman M, et al. CMAJ 2003; 168(3): 293 -301. Chaudhuri KR. Eur J Neurol 2002; 9 (Suppl 3): 40 -3.

Early Morning Akinesia – What the Patient Wants • To wake up mobile • To beEarly Morning Akinesia – What the Patient Wants • To wake up mobile • To be able to get out of bed, wash and dress • Usual scenario: – Wakes up “off” – Needs to take medication and wait for “on” – Start of effective day delayed – Quality of life reduced 32 Guttman M, et al. CMAJ 2003; 168(3): 293 -301.

Diagnosis Decision to treat Decision to refer to neurologist Yes Evaluate patient characteristics and degree ofDiagnosis Decision to treat Decision to refer to neurologist Yes Evaluate patient characteristics and degree of disability Mild motor disability and no cognitive impairment Moderate/Severe motor disability and no cognitive impairment F Moderate/severe disability and age 70– 75+ years or with significant co-morbidity including cognitive impairment Begin dopamine agonist or MAO-B inhibitor Begin dopamine agonist Begin levodopa* Diagnosis — Treatment Options 33*However, DAs may also be considered in patients aged 70 -75+ if they have no cognitive impairment Adapted from Schapira AH. Arch Neurol 2007; 64(8): 1083 -8.

34 Additional symptomatic benefit required Consider MAO-B inhibitor if not already started Begin dopamine agonist if34 Additional symptomatic benefit required Consider MAO-B inhibitor if not already started Begin dopamine agonist if not already started. Titrate to maximum response or tolerance Disability requiring additional therapy Start levodopa if not already started. Levodopa Dopamine agonist MAO-B inhibitor Titrate to maximum response or as symptoms progress. Refer to neurologist. Decision Pathway for Sequence and Combination of Drugs in Advanced PD Adapted from Schapira AH. Arch Neurol 2007; 64(8): 1083 -8.

35 Dopamine Agonists in PD Agonist: Monotherapy in early PD Combination with L-DOPA in advanced PD35 Dopamine Agonists in PD Agonist: Monotherapy in early PD Combination with L-DOPA in advanced PD Prevention of motor complications and dyskinesias Treatment of motor fluctuations Pramipexole IR* Effective Bromocriptine Probably efficacious Effective Probably efficacious Cabergoline Insufficient data Effective Probably efficacious Ropinirole IR* Effective Insufficient data Effective Rotigotine Effective Insufficient data Effective Ropinirole ER † Effective Insufficient data Effective *IR, immediate release; † ER, extended release

36 Treatment Resistant Tremor in PD Effect of Pramipexole Tremor score Treatment (weeks)14 12 10 836 Treatment Resistant Tremor in PD Effect of Pramipexole Tremor score Treatment (weeks)14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Pramipexole ( n = 44) Placebo ( n = 39) *** P < 0. 0001 Pogarell O, et al. J Neurol Neurosur 2002; 72: 713 -20, © 2002 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

37 Neuroprotection 37 Neuroprotection

Neuroprotection in PD Mechanisms of Neuronal Death • Apoptosis • Oxidative stress • Nitrative stress •Neuroprotection in PD Mechanisms of Neuronal Death • Apoptosis • Oxidative stress • Nitrative stress • Excitotoxicity • Mitochondrial dysfunction • Impaired proteolysis • Glial-mediated inflammation 38 Schapira AH, Olanow CW. JAMA 2004; 291: 358 -64.

39 Neuroprotection in PD Actions of Pramipexole – In-Vitro and In-Vivo Models • Protects cells against39 Neuroprotection in PD Actions of Pramipexole – In-Vitro and In-Vivo Models • Protects cells against oxidative stress • Protects cells against mitochondrial inhibition • Protects mice against 6 -OHDA-induced nigral cell loss • Protects mice against MPTP and MPP+ induced nigral cell loss • Protects primates against MPTP-induced nigral cell loss • Prevents toxin-induced changes in mitochondrial function • Prevents caspase cascades • Anti-apoptotic • Active through non-dopaminergic mechanisms Le WD, et al. Drugs Aging 2001; 18(6): 389 -96. Gu M, et al. J Neurochem 2004; 91(5): 1075 -81. Cassarino DS, et al. J Neurochem 1998; 71(1): 295 -301. Abbreviations: 6 -OHDA: 6 -hydroxydopamine MPTP: 1 -methyl-4 -phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6 -tetrahydropyridine MPP+: 1 -methyl-4 -phenylpyridinium

Reprinted from Iravani MM,  et al.  J Neurochem 2006; 96: 1315 -21,  withReprinted from Iravani MM, et al. J Neurochem 2006; 96: 1315 -21, with permission from Blackwell Publishing. 40 Neuroprotection in PD Pramipexole Prevents MPTP * Toxicity in Primates TH-ir † cell counts at the level of the 3 rd cranial nerve TH-ir † neuronal counts in the rostrocaudal plane Group D Group A Group B Group C Group E NSMean TH+ve Cell Counts at 3 rd Nerve 050100150200250300 Group A Group B Group C Group D Group E Treatment Group NS * 050100150200250300 Mean Counts of TH+ve Neurones 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Rostrocaudal Distance ( m)Level of 3 rd nerve rootlets * MPTP, 1 -methyl-4 -phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6 -tetrahydropyridine † TH-ir, tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive

41 CALM-PD Early Treatment with Pramipexole vs.  Levodopa • Patients with early Parkinson’s disease •41 CALM-PD Early Treatment with Pramipexole vs. Levodopa • Patients with early Parkinson’s disease • CALM-PD – Pramipexole versus levodopa – 123 I- -CIT* SPECT † to follow the rate of loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal cell density * 2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4 -iodophenyl)tropane † Single photon emission computed tomography Parkinson Study Group. JAMA 2002; 287: 1653 -61.

42 Neuroprotection in PD Advantages of Early Pramipexole and Disease Progression ( ) M ean C42 Neuroprotection in PD Advantages of Early Pramipexole and Disease Progression (% ) M ean C hange from B aseline -30 -20 -10 010 Scan Interval (months)0 10 20 30 40 50 pramipexole levodopa (39) (36)(35) (33)(39)(n = 82) (32) Parkinson Study Group. JAMA 2002; 287: 1653 -61. Copyright © 2002 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Assessment of Potential Impact of Pramipexole on Underlying Disease ( PROUD) – Trial Design UPDRS Qo.Assessment of Potential Impact of Pramipexole on Underlying Disease ( PROUD) – Trial Design UPDRS Qo. L-CGI PPX 1. 5 mg Titration 6 wk. UPDRS SPECT Qo. L-CGI Early untreated PD 6 m 9 m. Placebo 3 m 15 m UPDRS SPECT Qo. L-CGIUPDRS CGI PPX 1. 5 mg Titration 6 wk 0 UPDRS CGI Abbreviations: CGI, c linical global impression; Qo. L, quality of life; SPECT, s ingle photon emission computed tomography Schapira AH, et al. MDS 12 th International Congress;

44 Sleep Disorders in PD 44 Sleep Disorders in P

Sleep Disorders in PD • Nocturnal disturbance • REM sleep behavioural disorder • Excessive daytime somnolenceSleep Disorders in PD • Nocturnal disturbance • REM sleep behavioural disorder • Excessive daytime somnolence • Sleep attacks 45 Chaudhuri KR, et al. Lancet Neurol 2006; 5: 235 -45. Arnulf I. J Neural Transm Suppl 2006; (70): 357 -60.

46 Excessive Daytime Somnolence in PD Treatment • Improve sleep hygiene • Evaluate for contributing conditions46 Excessive Daytime Somnolence in PD Treatment • Improve sleep hygiene • Evaluate for contributing conditions such as depression • Modify dopaminergic medication to use lowest effective dose • Reduce or discontinue antihistamine, hypnotics or stimulant drugs that disrupt the sleep–wake cycle • If persistence or worsening of parkinsonism occurs, use alerting agents such as modafinil Refer to neurologist Decision on the level of individual patient Barone P, et al. Neurology 2004; 63(8 Suppl 3): S 35 -8. Phillips B. Neurology 2004; 62(5 Suppl 2): S 9 -16.

47 Sleep Attacks in PD  • Sudden onset of sleep without warning • Rare but47 Sleep Attacks in PD • Sudden onset of sleep without warning • Rare but potentially dangerous adverse event • Can occur while driving • Patients advised not to drive • Class effect Refer to neurologist Arnulf I. J Neural Transm Suppl 2006; (70): 357 -60. Barone P, et al. Neurology 2004; 63(8 Suppl 3): S 35 -8.

48 Impulse Control Disorders in PD 48 Impulse Control Disorders in P

49 Symptoms of Impulse Control Disorders in PD • Dopamine dysregulation syndromes • Abnormal behaviours 49 Symptoms of Impulse Control Disorders in PD • Dopamine dysregulation syndromes • Abnormal behaviours • Pathological gambling • Compulsive shopping • Punding • Hypersexuality Refer to neurologist or psychiatrist Mamikonyan E, et al. Mov Disord 2008; 23(1): 75 -80. Potenza MN, et al. Nat Clin Prac t Neurol 2007; 3(12): 664 -72.

50 Symptoms of Impulse Control Disorders in PD • Reported under dopaminergic treatment including dopamine agonists50 Symptoms of Impulse Control Disorders in PD • Reported under dopaminergic treatment including dopamine agonists and L-dopa • Physicians, patients and caregivers should be appropriately informed • Refer to neurologist or psychiatrist if symptoms of abnormal behaviour occur Refer to neurologist or psychiatrist Mamikonyan E, et al. Mov Disord 2008; 23(1): 75 -80. Potenza MN, et al. Nat Clin Prac t Neurol 2007; 3(12): 664 -72.

51 Impulse Control Disorders in PD Management • Actively monitor for symptoms of impulse control disorders51 Impulse Control Disorders in PD Management • Actively monitor for symptoms of impulse control disorders • Discuss the risks and benefits of treatment • Involve spouse or other family members (with consent of patient) • Ensure medication compliance, checking for hoarding and overuse of medication • Consider altering drug therapy • Refer to neurologist • Refer to psychiatrist Refer to neurologist or psychiatrist Mamikonyan E, et al. Mov Disord 2008; 23(1): 75 -80. Potenza MN, et al. Nat Clin Prac t Neurol 2007; 3(12): 664 -72.

52 Fibrosis in PD 52 Fibrosis in P

53 Fibrosis in PD • Pulmonary fibrosis • Fibrotic valvular heart disease • Rare but potentially53 Fibrosis in PD • Pulmonary fibrosis • Fibrotic valvular heart disease • Rare but potentially serious • Associated with ergot derivatives (bromocriptine, pergolide, cabergoline) • No increased risk under use of non-ergot dopamine agonists (e. g. pramipexole, ropinirole) • Probably associated with serotonergic actions (5 -HT 2 B ) of drugs Refer to cardiologist Antonini A, Poewe W. Lancet Neurol 2007; 6(9): 826 -9. Roth BL. N Engl J Med 2007; 356(1): 6 -9.

54 Risk for Developing Valvular Heart Disease in PD 80 60 40 20 0 V a54 Risk for Developing Valvular Heart Disease in PD 80 60 40 20 0 V a lv u la r R e g u rg ita tio n (% ) 31*31* 43*43* 1010 1414 Pergolide Cabergoline Pramipexole Ropinirole Controls. Peralta et al. 1 * P < 0. 05 vs. controls Yamamoto et al. 2 ** P < 0. 001 vs. controls 2929 69** 2525 1818 1. Peralta C, et al. Mov Disord 2006; 21: 1109 -13. 2. Yamamoto M, et al. Neurology 2006; 67: 1225 -9.

55 Fibrosis in PD Management • Not always reversible • Regular echocardiograms • Withdraw ergot agonists55 Fibrosis in PD Management • Not always reversible • Regular echocardiograms • Withdraw ergot agonists and replace with alternative dopaminergic treatment • Avoid ergot derivatives Refer to cardiologist / pulmonologist Antonini A, Poewe W. Lancet Neurol 2007; 6(9): 826 -9. Roth BL. N Engl J Med 2007; 356(1): 6 -9.

56 Pharmacokinetics and Drug Interactions 56 Pharmacokinetics and Drug Interactions

57 Drug Interactions Polypharmacy An increasing number of patients are on multiple medications Woodwell DA ,57 Drug Interactions Polypharmacy An increasing number of patients are on multiple medications Woodwell DA , Cherry DK. Adv Data 2004; (346): 1 -44. Safran DG, et al. Health Aff (Millwood) 2005; Suppl Web Exclusives: W 5 -152 -W 5 -166. Taler GA. http: //www. americangeriatrics. org/policy/taler_testimony. shtml. >50% Drug visits account for the majority of physician office visits made by adults aged 45 years and older 41% Since 1992, visits with multiple drugs prescribed have increased by 41% 75% of American seniors (aged 65 or older) take 3 or more prescription medications daily 7– 76% Between 7% and 76% of PD patients may suffer from depression. SSRIs are the most frequently used medications for depression in P

58 Effect of Food on Drug Action in PD Influence of food Levodopa Absorption affected by58 Effect of Food on Drug Action in PD Influence of food Levodopa Absorption affected by gastric emptying. High dietary protein reduces efficacy by competing for uptake through the blood–brain barrier Ropinirole Increase of T max by 2. 5 hours and decrease of C max by 25% after high fat meal Pramipexole When taken with food, T max increases by 1 hour T max = time of maximum plasma concentration C max = maximum plasma concentration Tsui JK, et al. Neurology 1989; 39: 549 -52. Brefel C, et al. Br J Clin Pharmaco 1998; 45: 412 -5. Deleu D, et al. Clin Pharmacokinet 2002; 41(4): 261 -309.

59 Dopamine Agonists Metabolism and Clearance T 1/2 Route of metabolism Urine clearance as unchanged drug59 Dopamine Agonists Metabolism and Clearance T 1/2 Route of metabolism Urine clearance as unchanged drug Ropinirole 6 h Liver 90% T 1/2 = half-life Kvernmo T, et al. Clin Ther 2006; 28: 1065 -78. Sweetman S, ed. Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference; 2008.

60 CYP 450 and Dopamine Agonists Metabolism / Interactions CYP 1 A 2 CYP 2 D60 CYP 450 and Dopamine Agonists Metabolism / Interactions CYP 1 A 2 CYP 2 D 6 CYP 3 A 4 Pramipexole No No No Ropinirole Yes Yes CYP = Cytochrome P 450 Kvernmo T, et al. Clin Ther 2006; 28: 1065 -78.

61 CYP 450 and Dopamine Agonists Inhibition CYP 1 A 2 CYP 3 A 4 CYP61 CYP 450 and Dopamine Agonists Inhibition CYP 1 A 2 CYP 3 A 4 CYP 2 D 6 Pramipexole No No No Ropinirole Yes No Yes Kvernmo T, et al. Clin Ther 2006; 28: 1065 -78. CYP = Cytochrome P

Commonly prescribed medications that are metabolised by the P 450 system include* 62 Drug Interactions CommonlyCommonly prescribed medications that are metabolised by the P 450 system include* 62 Drug Interactions Commonly Used Drugs Pramipexole has no predicted P 450 drug interactions — an important consideration in patients on multiple medications * Source: Prescribing Information for respective drugs. Please see respective Prescribing Information for more information about drug–drug interactions. Antibiotics Ciprofloxacin Clarithromycin Erythromycin Anticoagulants Warfarin Antidepressants Escitalopram Sertraline Antifungals Fluconazole Ketoconazole Angiotensin receptor blockers Irbesartan Losartan Benzodiazepines Alprazolam Midazolam Beta blockers Carvedilol Calcium channel blockers Diltiazem Felodipine Verapamil Hormonal therapies Oestrogen Hypnotics Eszopiclone Proton pump inhibitors Esomeprazole Lansoprazole Pantoprazole Statins Atorvastatin Rosuvastatin Simvastatin

63 Drug Interactions with Pramipexole • Cimetidine and other known inhibitors of the cationic transport system63 Drug Interactions with Pramipexole • Cimetidine and other known inhibitors of the cationic transport system decrease the clearance of pramipexole. • Carbidopa/levodopa, selegiline and probenecid do not influence the pharmacokinetics of pramipexole. • Amantadine may slightly decrease the clearance of pramipexole. • Other dopamine agonists may diminish the effectiveness of pramipexole. Nemeroff CB, et al. Am J Psychiatry 1996; 153(3): 311 -20. Wright CE, et al. J Pharmacol Therap 1997; 61: 182. Kvernmo T, et al. Clin Ther 2006; 28: 1065 -78.

64 Pharmacodynamic Interactions MAO-B Inhibitors • Selegiline can inhibit MAO-A at doses of 10 mg and64 Pharmacodynamic Interactions MAO-B Inhibitors • Selegiline can inhibit MAO-A at doses of 10 mg and above • Rasagiline selectivity may also be an issue • “ Cheese effect” with foods containing tyramine • Risk of hypertensive crisis Cersosimo MG, Koller WC. In: Principles of Treatment in Parkinson’s Disease; 2005. Horstink M, et al. Eur J Neurol 2006; 13: 1170 -85.

65 CYP 450 and MAO-B Inhibitors Metabolism CYP 1 A 2 CYP 3 A 4 CYP65 CYP 450 and MAO-B Inhibitors Metabolism CYP 1 A 2 CYP 3 A 4 CYP 2 D 6 Rasagiline Yes (major route) ? ? Selegiline Yes No Laine K, et al. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 57(2): 137 -42. Taavitsainen P, et al. Pharmacol Toxicol 2000; 86(5): 215 -21. Benetton SA , et al. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2007; 22(2): 78 -87. Hidestrand M, et al. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29(11): 1480 -4. Kivistö KT, et al. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 57(1): 37 -42. Oldfield V, et al. Drugs 2007; 67(12): 1725 -47. CYP = Cytochrome P

66 CYP 450 and MAO-B Inhibitors Inhibition CYP 1 A 2 CYP 3 A 4 CYP66 CYP 450 and MAO-B Inhibitors Inhibition CYP 1 A 2 CYP 3 A 4 CYP 2 D 6 Rasagiline No No No Selegiline Yes No No CYP = Cytochrome P 450 Laine K, et al. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 57(2): 137 -42. Taavitsainen P, et al. Pharmacol Toxicol 2000; 86(5): 215 -21. Benetton SA , et al. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2007; 22(2): 78 -87. Hidestrand M, et al. Drug Metab Dispos 2001; 29(11): 1480 -4. Kivistö KT, et al. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 57(1): 37 -42. Oldfield V, et al. Drugs 2007; 67(12): 1725 -47.

67 Pharmacodynamic Interactions MAO Inhibitors • In view of MAO inhibitory effect of rasagiline, concomitant use67 Pharmacodynamic Interactions MAO Inhibitors • In view of MAO inhibitory effect of rasagiline, concomitant use of antidepressants should be considered with caution because of possible risk for serotonin syndrome. • Selegiline and adjunctive SSRIs should be considered with caution because of possible risk for serotonin syndrome. • Combination of rasagiline and other MAO inhibitors and pethidine is contraindicated because of risk for serotonin syndrome. Oldfield V, et al. Drugs 2007; 67 (12): 1725 -1747. Summaries of product characteristics.

68 Dopamine Agonists and PD Conclusions 68 Dopamine Agonists and PD Conclusions

Dopamine Agonists and PD Conclusions 1 • Dopamine agonists provide effective treatment for the early andDopamine Agonists and PD Conclusions 1 • Dopamine agonists provide effective treatment for the early and mid-to-late stages of PD. • When used as monotherapy, dopamine agonists are associated with a low incidence of motor complications in comparison to L-DOPA. • The non-ergot drugs, such as pramipexole, are pharmacologically specific and selectively interact with D 2 /D 3 dopamine receptors. • Their plasma half-life is longer than for L-DOPA – More continuous drug delivery and dopaminergic stimulation. • Early treatment with DAs like pramipexole may translate into additional clinical benefits – Further research is currently underway to examine the potential to modify disease progression. 69 Yamamoto M, Schapira AH. Expert Rev Neurother 2008; 8(4): 671 -7. Le. Witt PA, Taylor DC. Neurotherapeutics 2008; 5(2): 210 -25.

Dopamine Agonists and PD Conclusions 2 • General practitioners should be aware that pulmonary and cardiacDopamine Agonists and PD Conclusions 2 • General practitioners should be aware that pulmonary and cardiac valvular fibrosis may occur with ergot derivatives. – In all cases, patients should be referred to the appropriate specialist for assessment. • The potential for drug interactions should be monitored in elderly patients taking multiple medications. • There are few known interactions for dopamine agonists such as pramipexole. Deleu D, et al. Clin Pharmacokinet 2002; 41(4): 261 -309. Kvernmo T, et al. Clin Ther 2006; 28(8): 1065 -78.

71 Supported by an educational grant from Boehringer Ingelheim International Gmb. H Scientific coordination: Armine Najand,71 Supported by an educational grant from Boehringer Ingelheim International Gmb. H Scientific coordination: Armine Najand, MD Produced by: LMS Group 75 rue Guy Môquet 92240 Malakoff France Phone: +33 1 42 53 03 03 Fax: +33 1 42 53 03 02 E-mail: info@lms-group. com www. lms-group. com