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 ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺨﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺩ. ﻏﺴﺎﻥ ﺭﺷﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺪﺍﻭﻱ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﻣﺨﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﺩ. ﻏﺴﺎﻥ ﺭﺷﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺪﺍﻭﻱ

 ﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻌﺎ ﻙ؟ ﻣﺎ ﻭﻗﻌﺎ ﻙ؟

 ﺃﻬﺪﺍ ﻭﺭﺷ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺭﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ، ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﻮﻥ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ: ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺓﺎﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ, ﺃﻬﻤﻴﺘﻪ, ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﺃﻬﺪﺍ ﻭﺭﺷ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺭﺷﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ، ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻛﻮﻥ ﻗﺎﺩﺭﻳﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ: ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺓﺎﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ, ﺃﻬﻤﻴﺘﻪ, ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﻭ ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺑﻨﺎﺋﻪ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻣﺨﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﺑﻠﻮﻡ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﻳﺔ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻨﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺍﺕ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ. -ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻓﻘﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺨﺼﺼﺎﺗﻬﻢ.

 ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﻧﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺎﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴﻠﻲ ؟ Achievement test ﻗﺼﺪ ﺑﺎﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴﻠﻲ ﺃﻨﻪ : ﺃﺪﺍﺓ ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﻧﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﺎﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴﻠﻲ ؟ Achievement test ﻗﺼﺪ ﺑﺎﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴﻠﻲ ﺃﻨﻪ : ﺃﺪﺍﺓ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻛﺴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻢ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻬﺎ ﻣﺴﺒﻘ ﺑﺼﻔﺔ ﺭﺳﻤﻴﺔ، ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﺇﺟﺎﺑﺎﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ )ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺍﺕ( ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻤﺜﻞ ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻴﺔ.

 ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺗﻪ • • ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻕ : ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻋﺪ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻪ. ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻣﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺗﻪ • • ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻕ : ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻋﺪ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻪ. ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺻﻤﻢ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻣﺜﻼ ، ﻓﻴﺠﺐ ﺃﻦ ﻳﻘﻴﺲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺻﻤﻢ ﻷﺠﻠﻬﺎ ، ﺃﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺎﺱ ﺍﺗﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺻﺎﺩﻕ. ﺍﻟﺜﺒﺎﺕ : ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻦ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻲ ﻻ ﻳﺘﻐﻴﺮ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ. ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻮ ﺻﻮﺭ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﺌﺔ ﻟﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻔﺮﺍﺩ. ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ : ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﺄﺜﺮ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺤﻮﺹ ﺑﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺤﺢ. ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻮﻟﻴﺔ : ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻬﺎ ﺃﻦ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺷﺎﻣﻼ ﻟﻨﻮﺍﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻬﺎ.

 ﺃﻬﻤﻴﺘـﻪ : • • • • ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ. ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﻬﻤﻴﺘـﻪ : • • • • ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ﻣﻮﺍﻃﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻌﻒ ﻟﺪﻯ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ. ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺗﺤﺼﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ ﻭﻣﺪﻯ ﺗﻘﺪﻣﻬﻢ. ﺇﺛﺎﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻢ. ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻃﺮﺍﺋﻖ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺲ. ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻫﺞ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻴﺔ ، ﻭﻣﺪﻯ ﻣﻼﺀﻣﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﺤﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ. ﺗﺰﻭﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻭﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﻷﻤﺮ ﻭﺃﺼﺤﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻐﺬﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺗﺤﺼﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ. ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻲ.

 ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﻣﺎﻫﻲ ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴﻠﻲ؟ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﻣﺎﻫﻲ ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴﻠﻲ؟ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ

Examinations ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ book exam Open-book exam Take-home exam Examinations ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ book exam Open-book exam Take-home exam

 ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴﻠﻲ 1 ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺘﻮﻱ -2ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻧﻮﺍﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ Statement of ﺧﻄﻮﺍﺕ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴﻠﻲ 1 ﻭﺿﻊ ﺗﺨﻄﻴﻂ ﻟﻠﻤﺤﺘﻮﻱ -2ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻧﻮﺍﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ Statement of learning outcomes cation 3 ﻭﺿﻊ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎ ﺭ 4 ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﻘﺮﺍﺕ nstructions 5 ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ Development of Answer ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ 6 ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻭﺭﻗﺔ sheets Construction of Answer ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ 7 ﻭﺿﻊ ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡ Keys Test ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ 8 ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬ Administration -9 ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺟﻌﺔ

Figure 1. Aligning learning outcomes, learning and teaching activities and the assessment. Adapted from Figure 1. Aligning learning outcomes, learning and teaching activities and the assessment. Adapted from Biggs(1999) p 27 http: //www. engsc. ac. uk/er/theory/constructive_alignment. asp

 ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ ﻣﺠﺎﻻﺕ ) 1 -Cognitive Domain (Thinking , Knowledge ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﻲ ) ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺜﻼﺙ ﻣﺠﺎﻻﺕ ) 1 -Cognitive Domain (Thinking , Knowledge ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﻲ ) ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﻴﺮ , ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ( ) 2 -Affective Domain ( Feelings, attitudes ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻻﻧﻔﻌﺎﻟﻲ )ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺗﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ( ) 3 -Psychomotor Domain (Doing , Skills ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﺤﺮﻛﻲ )ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻞ , ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ (

Evaluation of Student Achievement What a person knows Cognitive Tests What a person can Evaluation of Student Achievement What a person knows Cognitive Tests What a person can do Performance Ratings What a person feels Attitude Scales

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Cognitive Domain Bloom’s Taxonomy: Cognitive Domain

 ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻣﺨﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺑﻠﻮﻡ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻣﺨﺮﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺗﺒﻌﺎ ﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺑﻠﻮﻡ

 ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ Table of Specifications ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ Table of Specifications

 Table of Specifications ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ • • • • ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﻣﻨﻪ) ﺍﻭ ﺃﻬﻤﻴﺘﻪ( Table of Specifications ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ • • • • ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺽ ﻣﻨﻪ) ﺍﻭ ﺃﻬﻤﻴﺘﻪ( : ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻜﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﻲ. ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﺃﻮ ﻣﺮﺷﺪ ﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﻳﺔ. ﺗﻮﺯﻉ ﻓﻘﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻟﺘﺸﻤﻞ ﺃﻨﻮﺍﻋﺎ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﻭﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺗﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ. ﻳﻮﺯﻉ ﻓﻘﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻟﺘﺸﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ. ﻳﻮﻓﺮ ﺻﺪﻗﺎ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺎ ﻟﻼﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ. ﻳﺠﻌﻞ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﺪﺍﺓ ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺼﻴﺔ ﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻮﻧﻪ ﺃﺪﺍﺓ ﺗﺤﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ. ﻳﻮﺯﻉ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﻬﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﻌﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺟﺰﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺠﺰﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ.

 ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺟﺪﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ

Assessment Methods ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ Assessment Methods ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ

 ﺃﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻔﻀﻞ ؟ ﺍﻷﻤﺮ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮﻯ , ﻧﻮﺍﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ, ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺃﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﺃﻔﻀﻞ ؟ ﺍﻷﻤﺮ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮﻯ , ﻧﻮﺍﺗﺞ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ, ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ , ﺍﻟﺦ : ﻫﻞ ﺗﺮﻳﺪ ﺃﻦ ﺗﻘﻴﻢ : -ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ؟ -ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ؟ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ -ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ؟ -ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ ؟ - ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ ؟

Direct Measures of Learning Assessment Methods ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ Objective Test items • ﺍﻻﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ Direct Measures of Learning Assessment Methods ﻃﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ Objective Test items • ﺍﻻﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ Case Studies • ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ Essay • ﺃﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻝ Questions Projects • ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺮﻭﻋﺎﺕ Reflective Journals • ﺍﻟﺠﺮﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻤﻠﻴﺔ Seminar Presentation • ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻤﻨﺎﺭ Practicum and Clinical experiences • ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺪﺍﻧﻴﺔ Portfolio • ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻤﻴﻌﻲ Behavioral observations ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ Informal interviews • ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺑﻼﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻤﻴﺔ Examinations • ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ homework assignments • ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺰﻟﻴﺔ essays • ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﻝ Peer and Self-Assessment • ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ ﻭ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺰﻣﻴﻞ

 ﻣﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ : ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ : • ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺪﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ : ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ : • ﻭﻳﻘﺼﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺪﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺃﻮ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﺤﻠﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺇﻟﻰ آﺨﺮ. • ﻭﻳﻨﺪﺭﺝ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻝ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ : • ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ ، ﺍﻟﺘﺬﻛﺮ ، ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺻﻒ ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺪﻭﻟﺔ ، ﻭﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﻴﺮ ، ﺇﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ……ﺍﻟﺦ. ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ : • ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻭﺇﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﻭﺍﻻﺩﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺘﻪ، ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻌﻠﻤﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻴﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺄﻠﻮﻓﺔ ، ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻨﺪﺭﺝ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻝ : • ﺗﻮﻇﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ. • ﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ. • ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻮﻳﻢ. • ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻘﺼﺎﺀ. • ﺇﺻﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻢ ، ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺮﺍﺡ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻠﻮﻝ. • ﺍﻟﺘﺬﻭﻕ ﺍﻷﺪﺑﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪ ﻭﺇﺑﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺮﺃﻲ. .

 ﺃﻨﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ Objective Tests 1ـ ﺃﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻄﺄ True /False Items 2ـ ﺃﻨﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ Objective Tests 1ـ ﺃﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻄﺄ True /False Items 2ـ ﺃﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ Multiple Choice Items 3ـ ﺃﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ Matching Items 4ـ ﺃﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻤﻴﻞ Completion Items

 -a ﻓﻘﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻄﺄ : True False Items ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻤﻠﺔ ﺧﺒﺮﻳﺔ -a ﻓﻘﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻄﺄ : True False Items ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻦ ﺟﻤﻠﺔ ﺧﺒﺮﻳﺔ ﻳﺠﻴﺐ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ، ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻄﺄ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔ ﺧﺎﻃﺌﻪ ، ﺃﻮ ﺃﻲ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺃﺨﺮﻯ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﻻ ( ، ) √ ، × ( ﻭ ) ﺹ ، ﺥ (. ﻭﻳﻬﺪﻑ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ) ﻧﻌﻢ ، ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻃﺌﻪ ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﻲ. ﻭﻳﻤﺘﺎﺯ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺍﺕ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻳﺄﺘﻲ : ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ. ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ. ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ. ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ. ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﺘﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺸﺠﻴﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﻔﻆ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻤﻴﻦ.

 ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺄﺘﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺍﺕ • • ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺄﺘﻲ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺍﺕ • • ﺃﻦ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻞ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﻭﻗﺼﻴﺮﺓ ، ﻭﺃﻦ ﻻ ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﺭ. ﺃﻦ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔ ﺇﻣﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﺃﻮ ﺧﺎﻃﺌﺔ ، ﻭﻻ ﻳﺠﻮﺯ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺍﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻄﺄ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔ ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ. ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻻ ، ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺎ ، ﺃﺒﺪﺍ ، ﺃﺤﻴﺎﻧﺎ ، ﻓﻘﻂ ، ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ. ﺃﻦ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻞ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺔ ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ ، ﻭﺃﻦ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻣﺴﺎﻭﻳﺎ ﻟﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻞ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻃﺌﺔ

 ﻓﻘﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ : Multiple Choice Items • • • ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻓﻘﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ : Multiple Choice Items • • • ﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻔﻀﻞ ﺃﻨﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﻭﺃﻜﺜﺮﻫﺎ ﺻﺪﻗﺎ ﻭﺛﺒﺎﺗﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ. ﺗﺘﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺜﻞ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻦ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻮﺿﺢ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ، ﻭﻳﺘﺒﻌﻪ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻞ ) ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻮﻫﺎﺕ (. ﺇﺣﺪﺍﻫﺎ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ، ﻭﻳﻄﻠﺐ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ، ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺑﻬﺎ ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ، ﻭﻳﺘﺼﻒ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻳﺄﺘﻲ : ﺗﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺳﻲ. ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ. ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻤﻴﻢ. ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺪﺍﺋﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺑﺪﺍﻋﻴﺔ. ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﻩ

 ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺄﺘﻲ: • ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﻣﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺟﺐ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺄﺘﻲ: • • • ﺃﻦ ﻳﺤﺪﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺘﻦ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺎﻝ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ، ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﺃﺤﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﺣﻼ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ. ﺃﻦ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻞ ) 4 -5 ( ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻤﻴﻦ. ﺃﻦ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻮﻫﺎﺕ ﺟﻤﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻣﺤﺘﻤﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻬﺔ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ. ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻭﺿﻮﺡ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻧﺺ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺎﻝ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﺒﺘﻌﺪ ﻋﻦ ﺻﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ ، ﻭﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻲ ، ﻭﺗﺆﺪﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺇﺭﺑﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻭﺗﻀﻠﻴﻠﻪ. ﺍﻻﺑﺘﻌﺎﺩ ﻋﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ : ﺃﺒﺪﺍ ، ﺩﺍﺋﻤﺎ ، ﻣﻄﻠﻘﺎ ، ﺇﻃﻼﻗﺎ. ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﻛﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﺜﻞ : ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﻣﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ ، ﻻ ﺷﻴﺀ ﻣﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮ

 ﺃﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ) ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻭﺟﺔ ( : items • • • • • Matching ﺃﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ ) ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻭﺟﺔ ( : items • • • • • Matching ﻳﺘﺄﻠﻒ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺘﻴﻦ ) ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺘﻴﻦ ( ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺃﻮ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻮﻟﻰ ) ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﻣﺎﺕ ( ، ﻭﺗﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ) ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺎﺕ ( ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻮﻟﻰ ﺇﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ، ﻭﻳﻄﻠﺐ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺃﻦ ﻳﺮﺑﻂ ﻛﻞ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﺃﻮ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻮﻟﻰ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻳﻨﺎﺳﺒﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻛﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺃﻮ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ. ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺑﻂ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺩﺉ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻤﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ. ﻭﻳﺘﺼﻒ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺑﻤﺎ ﻳﺄﺘﻲ : ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ. ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ. ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻗﻠﻴﻞ. ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺘﻪ ﻟﻠﻄﻠﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ. ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺘﻪ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻗﺪﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﺎﺋﻖ ، ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻌﻤﻴﻤﺎﺕ ، ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ. ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻌﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﺬﻛﺮﻫﺎ. ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻣﻪ ﻳﺘﻄﻠﺐ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻨﺎﻇﺮﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺭﻑ ، ﻭﺍﻥ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﺍﺋﻞ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ) ﻗﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺎﺑﺎﺕ ( ﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺪﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻭﻟﻰ ) ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺪﻣﺎﺕ (.

 ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﻪ: Objective Tests ﺍﻻﺭﻗﺎﻡ, ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ, ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﻪ: Objective Tests ﺍﻻﺭﻗﺎﻡ, ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ, ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺗﺬﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻋﺎﺀ, ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻂ , ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﻴﺮ )ﻧﻮﺍﺗﺞ ﺗﻌﻠﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻻﺩﻧﻲ ( ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ ﺑﺴﻴﻄﺔ ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ, ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻭ ﺣﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺟﻴﺪﺍ. ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﻳﻤﻜﻦ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺣﻞ . ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ) ﻭ ﻟﻜﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﺐ( ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻓﻘﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ.

Example 1 Typical MCQ Which e-Business model best describes an online auction company like Example 1 Typical MCQ Which e-Business model best describes an online auction company like e. Bay? B 2 B (B) B 2 C (C) C 2 C (D) Portal (E) Infrastructure Example 2 High Order Thinking MCQ After installing Windows 2000 Server on a new computer, you try to boot the computer but it fails. You receive an error message stating that the Boot. ini file is missing. The computer’s system partition has been formatted with NTFS. Which of the following describes the simplest solution to the problem in this scenario? You should (A) Use the latest System State backup to restore the missing file. (B) Boot the computer using Safe mode and then copy the missing file from a Windows 2000 CD. (C) Use the ERD to boot the computer and then restore the missing file to the Windows 2000 Server computer. (D) Use the Recovery Console to copy the missing file from the Windows 2000 CD.

 ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻝ Essay Tests 1 -Unstructured questions, free-response questions ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﻮﺣﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻴﺲ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻝ Essay Tests 1 -Unstructured questions, free-response questions ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﻮﺣﻪ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﻩ ﻟﻠﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺍﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ, ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺗﻘﻴﺲ ﻣﺪﻱ ﻭﺍﺳﻊ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻉ , ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺑﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﺨﺮﻱ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ , ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺐ , ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ, ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﻴﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺻﻪ ﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺍﻻﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﻭ ﺍﻳﻀﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﻴﺮ ﺍﻻﺑﺘﻜﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺍﻻﺑﺪﺍﻋﻲ. . 2 - Structured or restricted-response questions ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺪﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﻳﻜﻮﻥ ﻟﻠﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﻭ ﻣﺪﻱ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ. ﻭ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ ﻣﺎﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﺍﻻﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﻣﺮﺷﺪﺓ ﻭ ﻣﻮﺟﻪ ﻟﻬﻴﻜﻞ ﻭ ﻣﺤﺘﻮﻱ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ , ﻭ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻳﻘﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺮﺭ, ﺃﻜﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺪ. .

Example 1 Unstructured Essay Question Discuss the suitability of deploying a distributed highvolume financial Example 1 Unstructured Essay Question Discuss the suitability of deploying a distributed highvolume financial transaction system on Microsoft’s. Net architecture in under 500 words. Example 2 Structured Essay Question Read the information about Smith College. Describe a) how work is organized amongst the different departments b) how these departments are coordinated c) the advantages and disadvantages of the functional structure d) what kinds of problems this type of organization solves/ creates? e) Is this the most effective kind of organization for Smith College?

 ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻬﻢ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﻭﻋﻴﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﻬﻢ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﻭﻋﻴﻮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ

 ﺃﻬﻢ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﻭﻋﻴﻮﺏ ﺍﻻﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻳﺎ 1. ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ 2. ﺃﻬﻢ ﻣﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﻭﻋﻴﻮﺏ ﺍﻻﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻳﺎ 1. ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ 2. ﻻ ﺗﺴﻤﺢ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺨﻤﻴﻦ ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺶ. 3. ﺗﻤﻨﺢ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ. 4. ﺗﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﻭﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﻷﻔﻜﺎﺭ. 5. ﻳﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻔﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ. ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻮﺏ 1. ﺗﻔﺘﻘﺪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺧﺎﺻﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻮﻟﻴﺔ. 2. ﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻭﺧﻄﻪ ﻭﺗﻨﻈﻴﻤﻪ ﻭﺳﺮﻋﺘﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻞ ﺗﺆﺜﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ. 3. ﺗﺴﺘﻐﺮﻕ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻭﺟﻬﺪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ. 4. ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ ﻓﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺎﻝ ﺑﺄﺸﻜﺎﻝ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ. ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ. 5. ﻻ ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺤﺼﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ. ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﺍﻳﺎ ﺍﻟﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺪﻕ. 1. ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ. 2. ﺍﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ. 3. ﺷﻤﻮﻟﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻬﺪﺍﻑ. 4. ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ. 5. ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻮﺏ ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻤﻴﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺑﺔ. 1. ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﻫﺎ. 2. ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺶ. 3. ﻻ ﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﺣﺮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﻭﻹﺑﺪﺍﻉ. 4. ﻣﻜﻠﻔﺔ ﻣﺎﺩﻳ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ. 5. ﻻﺗﻌﻄﻲ ﺩﻻﻟﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻟﻠﻄﺎﻟﺐ. 6.

 Case Studies ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﻭﺻﻒ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺣﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺃﻮ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ Case Studies ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻳﺘﻢ ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ ﻭﺻﻒ ﻳﺸﻤﻞ ﺣﻘﺎﺋﻖ ﺣﻮﻝ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺃﻮ ﻣﻮﻗﻒ ﻟﻠﻄﺎﻟﺐ. ﻭ ﻳﻄﻠﺐ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ , ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻭﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺤﻞ. ﻭ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﺒﻞ , ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻭ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺣﺘﻲ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﻭ ﻓﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﺽ ﺍﻟﻲ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻭﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻮﻝ. ﻭ ﻫﻲ ﺗﻘﻴﺲ ﺃﻴﻀﺎ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﺎﻣﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺍﻻﺗﺼﺎﻝ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﻗﺪ. ﻭ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﺪﺓ ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺠﺎﺑﺔ. ﻻﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺍﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭ ﻟﻜﻦ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺑﺪﺍﺋﻞ. ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﻳﺸﺠﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻂ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻴﻖ. ﻭ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺸﺠﻊ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﺳﺘﻜﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﻟﺤﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻴﺪ.

Table 1: Alignment of learning outcomes and assessment methods (Adapted from Biggs 2004) Table 1: Alignment of learning outcomes and assessment methods (Adapted from Biggs 2004)

Table 1: Alignment of learning outcomes and assessment methods Cont’d) Table 1: Alignment of learning outcomes and assessment methods Cont’d)

 ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺪ : • • • • ﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻪ ﻣﻐﻄﻰ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺪ : • • • • ﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻪ ﻣﻐﻄﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ؟ ﻫﻞ ﺍﻷﻬﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﻗﻴﺎﺳﻬﺎ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ؟ ﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ ﻭﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﻟﻐﺘﻪ ﻣﻼﺋﻢ ﻟﻠﻄﻠﺒﺔ ؟ ﻫﻞ ﺇﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺎﻝ ﻣﺤﺪﺩﺓ ؟ ﻫﻞ ﺻﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺎﻝ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻭﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺺ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ؟ ﻫﻞ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻋﺮﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺎﻝ ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ ؟ ﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻀﻤﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺎﻝ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻳﺔ ؟ ﻫﻞ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺴﺆﺎﻝ ؟ ﻣﺜﻞ ﺗﺴﻠﺴﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺤﺴﺐ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻯ ﺍﻷﻬﺪﺍﻑ ، ﺃﻮ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﺝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼﻌﻮﺑﺔ ، ﺃﻮ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ. ﻫﻞ ﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﺟﻤﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻉ ، ﻭﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎﻝ ،ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺨﺮﻯ ؟ ﻫﻞ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ﻭﺧﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻻﺯﺩﻭﺍﺟﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﺜﻞ : ﺻﻒ ﻭﺍﺫﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﺷﺮﺡ ﻓﻲ آﻦ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ . ﻫﻞ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻟﻜﻞ ﺳﺆﺎﻝ ﻭﻓﻘﺮﺓ ؟ ﻫﻞ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ؟ ﻫﻞ ﺗﻢ ﺗﺴﻠﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺆﺎﻝ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﺤﺔ ؟ ﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻟﻼﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ ؟

 ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻓﻘﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﻳﺔ ﻧﺸﺎﻁ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻓﻘﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﻳﺔ

 ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ. ﻭﻧﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ. ﻭﻧﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺻﺤﺔ ﺃﻮ ﺧﻄﺄ ﺇﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻭﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺠﻬﺎ ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ﻻ ﺗﺨﻀﻊ ﻟﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺤﺢ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻲ ﻓﺘﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺼﺤﺢ ﺇﻟﻰ آﺨﺮ. ﺍﻟﺜﺒﺎﺕ. ﻭﻧﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻪ ﻣﺮﺓ ﺃﺨﺮﻯ ﻳﻔﺼﻞ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﺘﺮﺓ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ ﻗﺼﻴﺮﺓ. ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻕ. ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﻕ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻳﻘﻴﺲ ﺍﻷﻬﺪﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻬﺎ ﺑﺪﻗﺔ. ﻓﻤﺜﻼ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺑﻬﺪﻑ ﺗﻘﻮﻳﻢ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺑﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﺒﺮ ﻓﻴﺠﺐ ﺃﻦ ﻳﻘﻞ ﺃﺜﺮ ﺿﻌﻒ ﺍﻟﻄﺎﻟﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺒﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﻣﺰﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺪﺍﺋﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ. ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻮﻝ. ﻭﻧﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺃﻦ ﺗﻐﻄﻲ ﺃﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺠﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺍﻟﻤﺮﺍﺩ ﺗﻘﻮﻳﻤﻬﺎ. ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺰ. ﺇﺑﺮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻭﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﺩﻳﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺍﻻﺟﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﺑﺎﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻟﻄﻼﺏ

 ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻌﻴﺔ. ﻭﻧﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻌﻴﺔ. ﻭﻧﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻛﺄﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ ﻭﻗﺘ ﻃﻮﻳﻼ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺱ ﺍﻻﻋﺪﺍﺩﻩ ﻭﺗﻄﺒﻴﻘﻪ ﻭﺗﺼﺤﻴﺤﻪ ﻭﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮ ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ ﻭﺃﻦ ﻳﻠﺌﻢ ﻇﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺍﻻﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ. ﺍﻟﺪﺍﻓﻌﻴﺔ. ﺃﻦ ﻳﺜﻴﺮ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺣﻮﺍﻓﺰ ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻤﻴﺬ ﻧﺤﻮ ﺍﻻﺟﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﻧﺤﻮ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﻳﺘﺤﻘﻖ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺑﺘﺠﻨﺐ ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻳﻐﻠﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻤﻴﻦ ﻭﺃﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻛﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﻟﻌﻘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﻼﻣﻴﺬ. ﺍﻟﺴﻬﻮﻟﺔ. ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﻭﻏﻴﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ.

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