Скачать презентацию 河北省沙河市高一英语语法过关辅导课件-非谓语动词 金太阳新课标资源网 wx jtyjy com 八 非谓语动词 一 动词不定式 1 Скачать презентацию 河北省沙河市高一英语语法过关辅导课件-非谓语动词 金太阳新课标资源网 wx jtyjy com 八 非谓语动词 一 动词不定式 1

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河北省沙河市高一英语语法过关辅导课件-非谓语动词 金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com (八)非谓语动词 一、动词不定式 1. 动词不定式的句法功能 (1)不定式作主语 To know something about 河北省沙河市高一英语语法过关辅导课件-非谓语动词 金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com (八)非谓语动词 一、动词不定式 1. 动词不定式的句法功能 (1)不定式作主语 To know something about English is one thing;to know English is quite another. 此时,常用it作形式主语,而把不定式放在句子的后部。 It isn’t easy for her to find a new job. (2)不定式作宾语 ①不定式可作某些动词的宾语,常见的动词有:afford, agree,ask,decide,desire,expect,fail,hope,manage, promise,pretend,plan,intend,refuse,wish等。 I promised not to be late.

金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com ②介词but/except后接不定式作宾语时,如前面有实义动词do,不 定式就要省略to。 It has no choice but to lie down 金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com ②介词but/except后接不定式作宾语时,如前面有实义动词do,不 定式就要省略to。 It has no choice but to lie down and sleep. They did nothing but complain. (3)不定式作宾语补足语 ①某些动词如tell,want,wish,advise,order,require, expect,remind,persuade,encourage,convince,force,beg, allow,forbid等后可接不定式作宾语补足语。 My doctor advised me to take a rest. ②某些感官动词如feel,hear,see,watch,notice,observe等或 使役动词如have,let,make等后面可接不带to的不定式作宾语补 足语。但如果句子变成被动语态时,就必须带to 符号。 Did you notice anyone go into the house? Was anyone noticed to go into the house?

③某些动词如find,feel,think,expect,consider,make等后可 金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 接不定式作宾语,但宾语后要接形容词或名词作宾语补足语,而 且要用it作形式宾语。 News services make it possible for newspapers ③某些动词如find,feel,think,expect,consider,make等后可 金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 接不定式作宾语,但宾语后要接形容词或名词作宾语补足语,而 且要用it作形式宾语。 News services make it possible for newspapers to give their readers news from around the world. (4)不定式作定语 Do you have the ability to read and write English? ①作定语的不定式如果是不及物动词,或者不定式所修饰的名词 是不定式动作的地点、 具等,不定式后面须有相应的介词。 Please give me a knife to cut with. ②不定式作定语一般表示将来的动作,但修饰有序数词或形容词 最高级限定的名词时,则表示已完成的动作。 I borrowed some books to read during my holiday. She was the first woman to win the gold medal in the Olympic Games.

金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com (5)不定式作状语 ①不定式一般作目的状语,还可用短语in order to 或so as to。 He sat down 金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com (5)不定式作状语 ①不定式一般作目的状语,还可用短语in order to 或so as to。 He sat down to have a rest. ②不定式有时可作结果状语,表示意想不到的结果,还可用only to。 He left,never to return. He lifted a stone only to drop it on his own feet. ③不定式可用在下列句子中表示结果: He was so careless as to forget to lock the door.

金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com ④不定式可作评注性状语,用以修饰整个句子。 To be honest,I know nothing about it. (6)不定式作表语 The 金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com ④不定式可作评注性状语,用以修饰整个句子。 To be honest,I know nothing about it. (6)不定式作表语 The first step is to check the victim’s breathing. All I did was (to) press the button. (7)“疑问词+不定式”在句中可充当主语、表语、宾语。 When and where to hold the meeting is not known yet. I didn’t know whether to laugh or cry about it. 【注】 此时不可用if to do结构。

wx. jtyjy. com 金太阳新课标资源网 2. 不定式的时态和语态 时  态 主动语态 被动语态 一般时 to do to wx. jtyjy. com 金太阳新课标资源网 2. 不定式的时态和语态 时  态 主动语态 被动语态 一般时 to do to be done 进 行时 to be doing 完成时 to have done to have been done (1)不定式的时态 ①不定式的一般式表示将来要发生的动作或表示一种状态。 I wish to finish my business and get away. He pretended to be asleep when his mother came in. ②不定式的进行式表示不定式动作仍在进行之中。 It happened to be raining hard when the accident occurred.

金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com ③不定式的完成式表示不定式动作已完成或发生在句子的谓语动 词之前。 He is generally considered to have invented the 金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com ③不定式的完成式表示不定式动作已完成或发生在句子的谓语动 词之前。 He is generally considered to have invented the telephone. (2)不定式的语态 当不定式与自己的逻辑主语之间是主动关系时,用主动语态;如 果是被动关系则用被动语态。 He refused to go abroad. He refused to be taken abroad. 【注】 下列情况下不定式用主动形式表达被动意义: ①不定式作定语时。 She has a sister to look after. ②不定式放在形容词之后时。 This book is difficult to understand.

金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com ③个别动词用在“be+不定式”结构中表将来或应该时。 I think he is to blame. 我认为他应该受到责备。 3. 不定式的省略问题 金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com ③个别动词用在“be+不定式”结构中表将来或应该时。 I think he is to blame. 我认为他应该受到责备。 3. 不定式的省略问题 有时为了避免重复,不定式可用省略形式,但常常要保留不定 式符号to。这种情况常出现在动词expect,hope,wish,mean, prefer,care,forget,want,try或be glad,be happy或would like/love等后面。如果不定式中含有be,have been时,这 些词也可保留。 I haven’t been to Hong Kong,but I wish to. “I didn’t tell him the news. ”“Oh,you ought to have. ”

金太阳新课标资源网 二、动名词 wx. jtyjy. com 1. 动名词的功能 (1)动名词作主语 Watching them is a thrilling experience. 金太阳新课标资源网 二、动名词 wx. jtyjy. com 1. 动名词的功能 (1)动名词作主语 Watching them is a thrilling experience. 【注】 有时用it 作形式主语,而把动词的 ng 形式放在句子的 i 后部。 It is no use crying over spilt milk. (2)动名词作宾语 ①下列动词后只能接动名词作宾语,不可接不定式作宾语: admit,appreciate,avoid,consider,delay,dislike,enjoy, escape,excuse,finish,imagine,keep,mind,miss, practise,risk,resist,suggest等。 I admit breaking the window.

金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com ②下列短语后要接动名词作宾语:burst out,can’t stand,end up,give up,feel like,keep on,insist on,look forward to,put 金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com ②下列短语后要接动名词作宾语:burst out,can’t stand,end up,give up,feel like,keep on,insist on,look forward to,put off,devote. . . to,object to,be busy(in),get down to,have difficulty/trouble(in),have a good/wonderful/hard time(in)等。 He didn’t want to end up going home alone. ③下列动词或短语后接不定式和动名词作宾语时,意义上有所不 同。

金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com

金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com Remember to post the letter for me on your way 金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com Remember to post the letter for me on your way to school. 请你在上学 的路上记住替我把这封信寄出去。 I remember turning off the light before I left the office. 我记得在离开办公室前关上了灯。 ④动词like,love,prefer,hate,continue等后接不定式或动名词 作宾语均可。但如表示经常性的动作要用动名词,如表示具体的 行为要用不定式。 I like swimming,but I don’t like to swim this afternoon.

金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com ⑤动词allow,advise,forbid,permit等后接动名词作宾语,但要接 不定式作宾语补足语。 We don’t allow smoking here. We don’t allow 金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com ⑤动词allow,advise,forbid,permit等后接动名词作宾语,但要接 不定式作宾语补足语。 We don’t allow smoking here. We don’t allow students to smoke. ⑥动词need,require,want作“需要”解时,其后要用动名词的主动 语态或不定式的被动语态作宾语。 The window needs cleaning/to be cleaned. ⑦形容词worth后要接动名词的主动语态表达被动意义,它不同于 worthy 的用法。 The place is worth visiting. The place is worthy of being visited/to be visited.

wx. jtyjy. com 金太阳新课标资源网 ⑧介词后要接动名词作宾语。 What do you mean by saying that? I congratulated wx. jtyjy. com 金太阳新课标资源网 ⑧介词后要接动名词作宾语。 What do you mean by saying that? I congratulated them on getting married. (3)动名词作表语 My hobby is growing flowers. (4)动名词作定语 He had a very expensive walking stick. 2. 动名词的时态和语态 主动语态 被动语态 一般时 doing being done 完成时 having done having been done

金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com He went away without saying anything. He came into the 金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com He went away without saying anything. He came into the room without being seen. I’m sorry for having wasted so much of your time. I forgot having been given a Christmas gift years ago. 3. 动名词的复合结构 动名词之前有时要加上自己的逻辑主语构成复合结构,逻辑主 语可用名词的所有格或物主代词,有时也可用名词或宾格代词。 I can’t imagine George sailing across the ocean in a boat. My coming back home late made my mother very angry.

金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 三、分词 1. 现在分词的功能 (1)现在分词作宾语补足语 下列动词后可接现在分词作宾补:see,hear,notice, observe,watch,listen to,look at,have,keep,leave, find,catch,feel等。 She 金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 三、分词 1. 现在分词的功能 (1)现在分词作宾语补足语 下列动词后可接现在分词作宾补:see,hear,notice, observe,watch,listen to,look at,have,keep,leave, find,catch,feel等。 She kept me waiting for over 20 minutes. 【注】 如果句子改为被动语态,那么现在分词则变为主语补足 语。 The boy was caught cheating in the exam. (2)现在分词作表语 The movie is very boring. (3)现在分词作定语时,通常表示与先行词之间是主动关系。 The taxi taking us to the airport broke down.

金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 【注】 being done形式表示正在进行中的动作,且与先行词之间 是被动关系。 The house being built will serve as 金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 【注】 being done形式表示正在进行中的动作,且与先行词之间 是被动关系。 The house being built will serve as a library. 正在建的那座房子将作为图书馆用。 (4)现在分词作状语 ①现在分词作状语时,可表示时间、原因、结果、条件、让步、 行为方式、伴随状况等。此时,现在分词的逻辑主语通常就是句 子的主语,而且现在分词与句子的主语之间一般具有逻辑上的主 谓关系。 The cup dropped to the ground,breaking into pieces. Jack came running over.

金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 【注】 如果现在分词的逻辑主语不是句子的主语,就要用分词 的独立主格结构。 Weather permitting,we’ll play golf this afternoon. We explored 金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 【注】 如果现在分词的逻辑主语不是句子的主语,就要用分词 的独立主格结构。 Weather permitting,we’ll play golf this afternoon. We explored the cave,Peter acting as a guide. ②现在分词还可作评注性状语,表示说话人的态度,此时现在分 词与句子的主语无关。常见的说法有:generally speaking“一般 来说”;frankly speaking“坦白地说”;judging from. . . “根据…… 来判断”;considering. . . “考虑到……”等。 Considering the distance,he arrived very quickly.

金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 2. 现在分词的时态和语态 主动语态 被动语态 一般时 doing being done 完成时 having 金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 2. 现在分词的时态和语态 主动语态 被动语态 一般时 doing being done 完成时 having done having been done Not knowing her address,I wasn’t able to contact her. I saw him being taken away when I passed by his house. Having bought our tickets,we went into theatre. Having been told many times,he still repeated the same mistake. 3. 过去分词一般在句中作宾补、表语、定语和状语,通常表示已 完成的被动动作或一种状态。 You’d better have the television repaired.

金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com Some of the people invited to the party can’t come. 金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com Some of the people invited to the party can’t come. The teacher came into the lab,followed by some students. Given a chance,I can surprise the world. He stood in front of the room with his arms folded. 四、不定式被动式、过去分词和现在分词的被动式作定语 1. 过去分词表示的动作或是在谓语所表示的动作之前发生,或是 没有一定的时间性。 Have you read the novel written by Dickens? 2. 现在分词的被动式作定语时表示的动作正在发生或是与谓语动 词所表示的动作同时发生。 Listen!The song being sung is very popular with the students.

金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 3. 不定式的被动式作定语时,表示一个未来的动作。 The question to be discussed at tomorrow’s meeting 金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 3. 不定式的被动式作定语时,表示一个未来的动作。 The question to be discussed at tomorrow’s meeting is a very important one. 五、分词、不定式作宾语补足语的区别 1. 感官动词(see,watch,observe,look at,hear,listen to, notice等)和使役动词have后面的宾补有三种形式,即原形动词 (不带to的不定式),现在分词和过去分词。现在分词表主动或正 在进行,过去分词表被动或完成,动词原形表主动和完成。 I heard her sing an English song just now. 刚才我听见她唱了一首英文歌。 I heard her singing an English song when I passed by her room yesterday. 昨天经过她房间时,我听见她在唱英文歌。 I heard the English song sung many times. 我多次听到有人唱这首英文歌。

金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 2. leave后接三种形式作宾补时,意为“使……处于某种状态”。 sb. doing sth. 让某人一直做某事 (宾语和宾补之间是主谓关系表示动作正在进行) sth. undone留下某事未做 leave 金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 2. leave后接三种形式作宾补时,意为“使……处于某种状态”。 sb. doing sth. 让某人一直做某事 (宾语和宾补之间是主谓关系表示动作正在进行) sth. undone留下某事未做 leave (宾语和宾补之间是动宾关系,表示被动和完成,一般以 undone. unfinished, unsettled, untouched为多) sb. to do sth. 留下某人做某事 sth. to be done留下某事要做 (不定式表示将来的动作) It’s wrong of you to leave the machine running. The guests left most of the dishes untouched,because they didn’t taste delicious. He left,leaving me to do all the rest work.

金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 3. have,get后接三种形式作宾补时,其中have,get表示“使、让、 叫”之意。 (1)have sth. done=get sth. done“使/让某事由别人去做”。 I’ll have/get 金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 3. have,get后接三种形式作宾补时,其中have,get表示“使、让、 叫”之意。 (1)have sth. done=get sth. done“使/让某事由别人去做”。 I’ll have/get my bike repaired tomorrow. 【注】 have sth. done还表示“使遭受……”之意。 Tom had his leg broken while playing football. The peasants had the tractor working day and night at the harvest time. The captain got the soldiers moving toward the front after a short rest.

金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 【注】 “have sb. doing”若用于否定句中,其中have有“容忍”之 意。 I won’t have you speaking to 金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 【注】 “have sb. doing”若用于否定句中,其中have有“容忍”之 意。 I won’t have you speaking to your parents like that. Mother had me go to the shop and buy some salt. I can’t get him to stop smoking. He won’t listen to me. 六、注意以下表达的意义区别

金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 过关落实 1. —The last one ____ pays the meal. —Agreed! 金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 过关落实 1. —The last one ____ pays the meal. —Agreed! A. arrived B. arrives C. to arrive D. arriving 解析:不定式to arrive 作the last one 的后置定语,表示“最 后来的那个人”。 答案:C

金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 2. I smell something ____ in the kitchen. Can I 金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 2. I smell something ____ in the kitchen. Can I call you back in a minute? A. burning B. burnt C. being burnt D. to be burnt 解析:强调“闻到某物正在燃烧”,选择v. ing 式,且此处burn 形 为不及物动词,因此不用被动形式。 答案:A 3. At the beginning of the class,the noise of desks ____could be heard outside the classroom. A. opened and closed B. to be opened and closed C. being opened and closed D. to open and close 解析:句中意为“桌子(抽屉)正在被打开、关上的声音”,强调 动作正在进行,用being done。 答案:C

金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 4. The flowers his friend gave him will die unless 金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 4. The flowers his friend gave him will die unless ____ every day. A. watered B. watering C. water D. to water 解析:unless watered作条件状语,表示条件,water因和主语 (the flowers)为动宾关系,故用过去分词形式。 答案:A 5. As a result of the serious flood,two thirdsof the buildings in the area ____. A. need repairing B. needs to repair C. needs repairing D. need to repair 解析:主语中分数修饰的名词为复数(the buildings),故排除 B、C;need doing等于need to be done,表示被动。 答案:A

金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 6. You can’t imagine what difficulty we had ____ home 金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 6. You can’t imagine what difficulty we had ____ home in the snowstorm. A. walked B. walk C. to walk D. walking 解析:have difficulty (in) doing sth. 做某事有困难,固定 句型,在本句中difficulty提前了。 答案:D 7. —Robert is indeed a wise man. —Oh,yes. How often I have regretted ____ his advice! A. to take B. taking C. not to take D. not taking 解析:regret+v. ing 式表示后悔做过某事;v. ing 式的否 形 形 定式在其前面加not。 答案:D

金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 8. The country has already sent up three unmanned spacecraft,the 金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 8. The country has already sent up three unmanned spacecraft,the most recent ____ at the end of last March. A. has been launched B. having been launched C. being launched D. to be launched 解析:having been launched等于which has been launched, 表示“已经被发射”。 答案:B 9. —Come on,please give me some ideas about the project. —Sorry. With so much work ____ my mind,I almost break down. A. filled B. filling C. to fill D. being filled 解析:work与fill为主谓关系,故用filling作宾补。 答案:B

金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 10. As the light turned green,I stood for a moment,not 金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 10. As the light turned green,I stood for a moment,not ____,and asked myself what I was going to do. A. moved B. moving C. to move D. being moved 解析:此处moving在句中做伴随状语。 答案:B 11. I can’t stand ____ with Jane in the same office. She just refuses ____ talking while she works. A. working;stopping B. to work;stopping C. working;to stop D. to work;to stop 解析:stand doing sth. 忍受做某事;refuse to do sth. 拒绝 做某事,均为固定搭配。 答案:C

金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 12. He hurried to the booking office only ____ that 金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 12. He hurried to the booking office only ____ that all the tickets had been sold out. A. to be told B. to tell C. told D. telling 解析:“only+不定式”结构表示一种出乎意料的结果(失望, 沮丧等),此处用不定式的被动式表示“却被告知”。 答案:A 13. It is difficult to imagine his ____ the decision without any consideration. A. to accept B. accept C. accepting D. accepted 解析:本句中his accepting作动词imagine的宾语。 答案:C

金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 14. Russ and Earl were auto mechanics ____ the same 金太阳新课标资源网 wx. jtyjy. com 14. Russ and Earl were auto mechanics ____ the same pay, but Earl had more ambition. A. to earn B. to have earned C. earning D. earned 解析:本句中earning为后置定语,相当于who earned。 答案:C 15. In the dream Peter saw himself ______ by a fierce wolf,and he woke suddenly with a start. A. chased B. to be chased C. be chased D. having been chased 解析:see oneself done看到自己被……;句子用过去分词 chased表示被动(被追逐)。 答案:A